Chapter 49 Parasite Control Programs

Equine Parasitic Disease

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  3. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Collins SS. 2009. Probable reason why small strongyle EPG counts are returning “early” after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in Central Kentucky. Parasitol Res 104:569. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Rossano MG, Smith AR, Lyons ET. 2010. Shortened strongyle-type egg reappearance periods in naturally infected horses treated with moxidectin and failure of a larvicidal dose of fenbendazole to reduce fecal egg counts. Vet Parasitol 173:349. PUBMED Abstract
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  7. Boersema JH, Borgsteede FHM, Eysker M, et al. 1995. The reappearance of strongyle eggs in feces of horses treated with pyrantel embonate. Vet Quart 17:18. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Demeulenaere D, Vercruysse J, Dorny P, et al. 1997. Comparative studies of ivermectin and moxidectin in the control of naturally acquired cyathostome infections in horses. Vet Rec 15:383. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Gibson TE. 1953. The effect of repeated anthelmintic treatment with phenothiazine on fecal egg counts of housed horses, with some observations on the life cycle of Trichonema spp. in the horse. J Helminthol 27:29.
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  11. Kaplan RM, Nielsen MK. 2010. An evidence-based approach to equine parasite control: it ain't the 60s anymore. Equine Vet Educ 22:306.
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  14. Gomez HH, Georgi JR. 1991. Equine helminth infections: control by selective chemotherapy. Equine Vet J 23:198. PUBMED Abstract
  15. van Wyk JA. 2001. Refugia–overlooked as perhaps the most potent factor concerning the development of anthelmintic resistance. Onderstepoort J Vet 68:55. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Martin PJ, LeJambre LF, Claxton JH. 1981. The impact of refugia on the development of thiabendazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 11:35. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Waghorn TS, Miller CM, Oliver AM, et al. 2009. Drench-and-shift is a high-risk practice in the absence of refugia. N Z Vet J 57:359. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Waghorn TS, Leathwick DM, Miller CM, et al. 2008. Brave or gullible: testing the concept that leaving susceptible parasites in refugia will slow the development of anthelmintic resistance. N Z Vet J 56:158. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Leathwick DM, Miller CM, Atkinson DS, et al. 2008. Managing anthelmintic resistance: untreated adult ewes as a source of unselected parasites, and their role in reducing parasite populations. N Z Vet J 56:184. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Herd RP. 1990. The changing world of worms—the rise of the cyathostomes and the decline of Strongylus vulgaris. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 12:732.
  21. Love S, Duncan JL. 1991. Could the worms have turned? Equine Vet J 23:152. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Love S, Murphy D, Mellor D. 1999. Pathogenicity of cyathostome infection. Vet Parasitol 85:113. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Proudman CJ, French NP, Trees AJ. 1998. Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse. Equine Vet J 30:194. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Cribb NC, Cote NM, Boure LP, et al. 2006. Acute small intestinal obstruction associated with Parascaris equorum infection in young horses: 25 cases (1985-2004). N Z Vet J 54:338. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Clayton HM. 1986. Ascarids. Recent advances. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2:313. PUBMED Abstract
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  27. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Rathgeber RA, et al. 2007. Parasite field study in central Kentucky on Thoroughbred foals (born in 2004) treated with pyrantel tartrate daily and other parasiticides periodically. Parasitol Res 100:473. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Clayton HM, Duncan JL. 1978. Clinical signs associated with Parascaris equorum infection in worm-free pony foals and yearlings. Vet Parasitol 4:69.
  29. Lichtenfels JR, Kharchenko VA, Dvojnos GM. 2008. Illustrated identification keys to strongylid parasites (strongylidae: Nematoda) of horses, zebras and asses (Equidae). Vet Parasitol 156:4. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Nielsen MK, Kaplan RM, Thamsborg SM, et al. 2007. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles: implications for worm control strategies and managing anthelmintic resistance. Vet J 174:23. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Reid SW, Mair TS, Hillyer MH, et al. 1995. Epidemiological risk factors associated with a diagnosis of clinical cyathostomiasis in the horse. Equine Vet J 27:127. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC. 2003. Field test data on small strongyles in evaluation of activity of fenbendazole given once a day for 5 consecutive days to Thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in Kentucky in 2002 and 2003. Parasitol Res 91:312. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Gasser RB, Williamson RMC, Beveridge I. 2005. Anoplocephala perfoliata of horses—significant scope for further research improved diagnosis and control. Parasitology 131:1. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Trotz-Williams L, Physick-Sheard P, McFarlane H, et al. 2008. Occurrence of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in horses in Ontario, Canada and associations with colic and management practices. Vet Parasitol 153:73. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Proudman C. 1997. Immunoepidemiology of the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata: age-intensity profile and age-dependency of antibody subtype responses. Parasitology 114:89. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Roelfstra L, Betschart B, Pfister K. 2006. A study on the seasonal epidemiology of Anoplocephala spp. infection in horses and the appropriate treatment using a praziquantel gel (Droncit 9% oral gel). Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 119:312. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Meana A, Pato NF, Martin R, et al. 2005. Epidemiological studies on equine cestodes in central Spain: infection pattern and population dynamics. Vet Parasitol 130:233. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Chapman MR, French DD, Klei TR. 2001. Seasonal transmission of gastrointestinal parasites of equids in southern Louisiana. J Parasitol 87:1371. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Stamper S, et al. 1994. Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1990, 1991, and 1992 in the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky. Vet Parasitol 52:257. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Benton RE, Lyons ET. 1994. Survey in central Kentucky for prevalence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses at necropsy in 1992. Vet Parasitol 55:81. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Collins SS, Drudge JH. 2001. Transmission of endoparasites in horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky (1996-1999). Vet Parasitol 97:113. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Barclay W, Phillips T, Foerner J. 1982. Intussusception associated with Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in five horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:752. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Owen RR, Jagger DW, Quan-Taylor R. 1989. Caecal intussusceptions in horses and the significance of Anoplocephala perfoliata. Vet Rec 124:34. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Lyons ET, Drudge JH, Tolliver SC, et al. 1988. Determination of the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate at the therapeutic dose against the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids using a modification of the critical test. Vet Parasitol 31:13. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Reinemeyer CR, Hutchens DE, Eckblad WP, et al. 2006. Dose confirmation studies of the cestocidal activity of pyrantel pamoate paste in horses. Vet Parasitol 138:234. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Enigk K. 1951. Die pathogenese der thrombotisch-embolische Kolik des Pferdes. Monatsh Tierheilk 3:65.
  47. Duncan JL. 1974. Strongylus vulgaris infection in the horse. Vet Rec 95:34. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Duncan JL, Pirie HM. 1975. The pathogenesis of single experimental infections with Strongylus vulgaris in foals. Res Vet Sci 18:82. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Duncan JL, Pirie HM. 1972. The life cycle of Strongylus vulgaris in the horse. Res Vet Sci 13:374. PUBMED Abstract
  50. McCraw BM, Slocombe JOD. 1978. Strongylus edentatus: development and lesions from ten weeks postinfection to patency. Can J Comp Med 42:340. PUBMED Abstract
  51. McCraw BM, Slocombe JOD. 1984. Strongylus equinus: development and pathological effects in the equine host. Can J Comp Med 49:372. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Coles GC, Brown SN, Trembath CM. 1999. Pyrantel resistant large strongyles in racehorses. Vet Rec 145:408. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Lyons ET, Drudge JH, Tolliver SC. 1973. Life-cycle of Strongyloides westeri in equine. J Parasitol 59:780. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Netherwood T, Wood JLN, Townsend HGG, et al. 1996. Foal diarrhoea between 1991 and 1994 in the United Kingdom associated with Clostridium perfringens, rotavirus, Strongyloides westeri and Cryptosporidium spp. Epidemiol Infect 117:375. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Dewes HF. 1989. The association between weather, frenzied behavior, percutaneous invasion by Strongyloides westeri larvae and Rhodococcus equi disease in foals. N Z Vet J 37:69. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC. 2004. Prevalence of parasite eggs (Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, and strongyles) and oocysts (Eimeria leuckarti) in the feces of Thoroughbred foals on 14 farms in central Kentucky. Parasitol Res 92:400.
  57. Reinemeyer CR. 2012. Anthelmintic resistance in non-strongylid parasites of horses. Vet Parasitol 185:9. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Cogley TP, Anderson JR, Cogley LJ. 1982. Migration of Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (diptera: Gasterophilidae) in the equine oral cavity. Int J Parasitol 12:473. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Principato M. 1988. Classification of the main macroscopic lesions produced by larvae of Gasterophilus spp. (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in free-ranging horses in Umbria. Cornell Vet 78:43. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Wollanke B, Gerhards H, Pfleghaar S. 2004. Chronic recurrent conjunctivitis due to Thelazia lacrymalis-induced, chronic abscess forming dacryoadenitis in a warmblood stallion. Pferdeheilk 20:131.
  61. Beelitz P, Matiasek K, Gothe R. 2001. Prevalence and worm burden of Thelazia lacrymalis (Nematoda, Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in slaughter horses from Upper Bavaria. Tierartzl Umschau 56:361.
  62. Lyons ET, Swerczek TW, Tolliver SC, et al. 2000. Prevalence of selected species of internal parasites in equids at necropsy in central Kentucky (1995-1999). Vet Parasitol 92:51. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Blagburn B, Lindsay D, Hendrix C, et al. 1991. Pathogenesis, treatment and control of gastric parasites in horses. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 13:850.
  64. Vasey JR. 1981. Equine cutaneous habronemiasis. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 8:290.
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  67. Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Drudge JH, et al. 1987. Common internal parasites found in the stomach, large intestine, and cranial mesenteric artery of Thoroughbreds in Kentucky at necropsy (1985 to 1986). Am J Vet Res 48:268. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Collobert-Laugier C, Lamidey C, Brisseau N, et al. 2000. Prevalence of stomach nematodes (Habronema spp., Draschia megastoma and Trichostrongylus axei) in horses examined post mortem in Normandy. Rev Med Vet 151:151.
  69. Herd RP. 1986. Serum pepsinogen concentrations of ponies naturally infected with Trichostrongylus axei. Equine Vet J 18:490. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Eysker M, Jansen J, Wemmenhove R, et al. 1983. Alternate grazing of horses and sheep as control for gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in horses. Vet Parasitol 13:273. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Eysker M, Jansen J, Mirck MH. 1986. Control of strongylosis in horses by alternate grazing of horses and sheep and some other aspects of the epidemiology of strongylidae infections. Vet Parasitol 19:103. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Rabalais F, Votava C. 1974. Cutaneous distribution of microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis in horses. Am J Vet Res 35:1369. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Perris EE. 1995. Parasitic dermatoses that cause pruritus in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 11:11. PUBMED Abstract
  74. French DD, Klei TR, Foil CS, et al. 1988. Efficacy of ivermectin in paste and injectable formulations against microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis and resolution of associated dermatitis in horses. Am J Vet Res 49:1550.
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  77. Cello RM. 1971. Ocular onchocerciasis in the horse. Equine Vet J 3:148. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Mancebo OA, Verdi JH, Bulman GM. 1997. Comparative efficacy of moxidectin 2% equine oral gel and ivermectin 2% equine oral paste against Onchocerca cervicalis (Railliet and Henry, 1910) microfilariae in horses with naturally acquired infections in Formosa (Argentina). Vet Parasitol 73:243. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Baumann R. 1946. Beobachtungen beim parasitären Summerbluten der Pferde. Wien Tierartzl Mschr 33:52.
  80. Thomsett LR. 1968. Parafilaria multipapillosa in horse. Vet Rec 83:27.
  81. Spalding MG, Greiner EC, Green SL. 1990. Halicephalobus (Micronema) deletrix infection in two half-sibling foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:1127. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Blunden AS, Khalil LF, Webbon PM. 1987. Halicephalobus deletrix infection in a horse. Equine Vet J 19:255. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Anderson RC, Linder KE, Peregrine AS. 1988. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Stefanski, 1954) from a fatal infection in a horse in Ontario, Canada with comments on the validity of H. deletrix and a review of the genus. Parasite 5:255. PUBMED Abstract
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  90. Gardiner CH, Koh DS, Cardella TA. 1981. Micronema in man: third fatal infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:586. PUBMED Abstract
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  94. Gordon HM, Whitlock HV. 1939. A new technique for counting nematode eggs in sheep faeces. J Sci Ind Res 12:50.
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  100. Proudman CJ, Edwards GB. 1992. Validation of a centrifugation/flotation technique for the diagnosis of equine cestodiasis. Vet Rec 131:71. PUBMED Abstract
  101. Kjær LN, Lungholt MM, Nielsen MK, et al. 2007. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count. Equine Vet J 39:529. PUBMED Abstract
  102. Proudman CJ, Trees AJ. 1996. Use of excretory/secretory antigens for the serodiagnosis of Anoplocephala perfoliata cestodosis. Vet Parasitol 61:239. PUBMED Abstract
  103. Abbott JB, Mellor DJ, Barrett EJ, et al. 2008. Serological changes observed in horses infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata after treatment with praziquantel and natural reinfection. Vet Rec 162:50. PUBMED Abstract
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  108. Nielsen MK, Olsen SN, Lyons ET, et al. 2012. Real-time PCR evaluation of Strongylus vulgaris in horses on farms in Denmark and Central Kentucky. Vet Parasitol 190:461. PUBMED Abstract
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Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections in Cattle

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  2. Yazwinski TA, Tucker CA. 2006. A sampling of factors relative to the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodosis of cattle in the United States. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 22:501. PUBMED Abstract
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  7. Slocombe JOD. 1974. Overwintering of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in southwestern Ontario. Can J Comp Med 38:90. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Gibbs HC. 1979. Relative importance of winter survival of larval nematodes in pasture and infected carrier calves in a study of parasitic gastroenteritis in calves. Am J Vet Res 40:227. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Gibbs HC. 1980. Persistence in pasture of the infective larvae of nematodes parasitizing Maine dairy cattle. Am J Vet Res 41:1694. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Frank GR, Herd RP, Marbury KS, et al. 1986. Effects of transfer of Ostertagia ostertagi between northern and southern U.S.A. on the pattern and frequency of hypobiosis. Int J Parasitol 16:391. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Frank GR, Herd RP, Marbury KS, et al. 1988. Additional investigations on hypobiosis of Ostertagia ostertagi after transfer between northern and southern U.S.A. Int J Parasitol 18:171. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Simpson HV. 2000. Pathophysiology of abomasal parasitism: is the host or parasite responsible? Vet J 160:177. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Elek P, Durie PH. 1966. The histopathology of the reactions of calves to experimental infection with the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum radiatum (Rudolphi, 1803) II. Reaction of the susceptible host to infection with a single dose of larvae. Aust J Agric Res 18:549.
  14. Fox MT. 1997. Pathophysiology of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in domestic ruminants: recent developments. Vet Parasitol 72:285. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Gasbarre LC, Smith LL, Lichtenfels JR, et al. 2009. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US. Vet Parasitol 166:281. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Sutherland IA, Leathwick DM. 2010. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of cattle: a global issue? Trends Parasitol 27:176. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Gasbarre LC, Smith LL, Hoberg E, et al. 2009. Further characterization of a cattle nematode population with demonstrated resistance to current anthelmintics. Vet Parasitol 166:275. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Edmonds MD, Johnson EG, Edmonds JD. 2010. Anthelmintic resistance of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora to macrocyclic lactones in cattle from the western United States. Vet Parasitol 170:224. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Wolstenholme AJ, Kaplan RM. 2012. Resistance to macrocyclic lactones. Curr Pharm Biotech 13:873. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Ballweber LR, Baeten LA. 2012. Use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle in the USA. Curr Pharm Biotech 13:1061. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Jackson R, Rhodes AP, Pomroy WE, et al. 2006. Anthelmintic resistance and management of nematode parasites on beef cattle-rearing farms in the North Island of New Zealand. N Z Vet J 54:289. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Ballweber LR, Gasbarre LC, Dargatz DA, et al. 2012. Attitudes towards gastrointestinal parasites and parasite control practices among United States cow-calf producers. Vet Parasitol. Submitted.
  23. Stromberg BE, Gasbarre LC, Waite A, et al. 2012. Cooperia punctata: effect on cattle productivity. Vet Parasitol 183:284. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Bartram DJ, Leathwick DM, Taylor MA, et al. 2012. The role of combination anthelmintic formulations in the sustainable control of sheep nematodes. Vet Parasitol 186:151. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Leathwick DM, Waghorn TS, Miller CM, et al. 2012. Managing anthelmintic resistance—use of a combination anthelmintic and leaving some lambs untreated to slow the development of resistance to ivermectin. Vet Parasitol 187:285. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Stromberg BE, Averbeck GA. 1999. The role of parasite epidemiology in the management of grazing cattle. Int J Parasitol 29:33. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Charlier J, Levecke B, Devleesschauwer B, et al. 2012. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 95:2977. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Stuedemann JA, Kaplan RM, Ciordia H, et al. 2004. Bermudagrass management in the Southern Piedmont USA. V: Gastrointestinal parasite control in cattle. Vet Parasitol 126:375. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Familton AS, Mason P, Coles GC. 2001. Anthelmintic-resistant Cooperia species in cattle. Vet Rec 149:719. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Siefker C, Rickard LG. 2000. Ostertagia ostertagi challenges of calves vaccinated with Haemonchus placei intestinal homogenate. Vet Parasitol 90:103. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Rinaldi M, Geldhof P. 2012. Immunologically based control strategies for ostertagiosis in cattle: where do we stand? Parasite Immunol 34:254. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Sangster NC, Dobson RJ. 2002. Anthelmintic resistance, pp. 531-567. In Lee DL (ed), The biology of nematodes. Taylor & Francis, New York, NY.
  33. Demeler J, Kleinschmidt N, Küttler U, et al. 2012. Evaluation of the egg hatch assay and the larval migration inhibition assay to detect anthelmintic resistance in cattle parasitic nematodes on farms. Parasitol Int 61:614. PUBMED Abstract
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  35. Ballweber LR. 2006. Diagnostic methods for parasitic infections in livestock. Vet Clin N Am Food Anim Pract 22:695. PUBMED Abstract

Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections in Sheep and Goats

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Lungworm Infection in Large Animals

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Evaluation of Parasite Control Programs

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Anthelmintic Use

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Anthelmintic Drugs

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Coccidiosis in Food Animals

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