Chapter 41 Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases

Equine Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Pituitary and Hypothalamus

  1. Dardente H. 2012. Melatonin-dependent timing of seasonal reproduction by the pars tuberalis: pivotal roles for long daylengths and thyroid hormones. J Neuroendocrinol 24:249. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Saland LC. 2001. The mammalian pituitary intermediate lobe: an update on innervation and regulation. Brain Res Bull 54:587. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Luppi PH, Sakai K, Salvert D, et al. 1986. Periventricular dopaminergic neurons terminating in the neuro-intermediate lobe of the cat hypophysis. J Comp Neurol 244:204. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Saiardi A, Borrelli E. 1998. Absence of dopaminergic control on melanotrophs leads to Cushing's-like syndrome in mice. Mol Endocrinol 12:1133. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Malven PV. 1997. Pituitary gland neuroendocrinology. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Proceeding #229-230. May 22-25, Orlando, FL.
  6. McFarlane D, Beech J, Cribb A. 2006. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone release in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in healthy horses, horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine pars intermedia explants. Domest Anim Endocrinol 30:276. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Millington WR, Dybdal NO, Dawson R Jr, et al. 1988. Equine Cushing's disease: differential regulation of β-endorphin processing in tumors of the intermediate pituitary. Endocrinol 123:1598. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Marklund L, Moller MJ, Sandberg K, et al. 1996. A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses. Mamm Genome 7:895. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Altmeyer P, Holzmann H, Stohr L, et al. 1984. The relationship between alpha-MSH level and coat color in white Camarque horses. J Invest Dermatol 82:199. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Nahon JL. 2006. The melanocortins and melanin-concentrating hormone in the central regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. C R Biol 329:623. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Clement K. 2006. Genetics of human obesity. C R Biol 329:608. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Katsuki A, Sumida Y, Murashima S, et al. 2000. Elevated plasma levels of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are correlated with insulin resistance in obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:1260. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Donaldson MT, McFarlane D, Jorgensen AJ, et al. 2004. Correlation between plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone concentration and body mass index in healthy horses. Am J Vet Res 65:1469. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Catania A, Lipton JM. 1993. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in the modulation of host reactions. Endocr Rev 14:564. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Taylor AW. 2005. The immunomodulating neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) suppresses LPS-stimulated TLR4 with IRAK-M in macrophages. J Neuroimmunol 162:43. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Manna SK, Sarkar A, Sreenivasan Y. 2006. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone down-regulates CXC receptors through activation of neutrophil elastase. Eur J Immunol 36:754. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Oktar BK, Yüksel M, Alican I. 2004. The role of cyclooxygenase inhibition in the effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on reactive oxygen species production by rat peritoneal neutrophils. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71:1. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Sacerdote P, Gaspani L, Panerai AE. 2001. Role of beta-endorphin in the modulation of immune responses: perspectives in autoimmune diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 493:137. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Dunbar JC, Lu H. 2000. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products in the central regulation of sympathetic and cardiovascular dynamics: studies on melanocortin and opioid interactions. Peptides 21:211. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Beevor S, Beloff-Chain A, Donaldson A, et al. 1978. Pituitary intermediate lobe function in genetically obese (ob/ob) and lean mice [proceedings]. J Physiol 275:55P. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Bailey CJ, Flatt PR. 1987. Insulin releasing effects of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-39) and ACTH fragments (1-24 and 18-39) in lean and genetically obese hyperglycaemic (ob/ob) mice. Int J Obes 11:175. PUBMED Abstract
  22. McFarlane D, Donaldson MT, McDonnell SM, et al. 2004. Effects of season and sample handling on measurement of plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone concentrations in horses and ponies. Am J Vet Res 65:1463. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Schreiber CM, Stewart AJ, Kwessi E, et al. 2012. Seasonal variation in results of diagnostic tests for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in older, clinically normal geldings. J Am Vet Med Assoc 241:241. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Cordero M, Brorsen BW, McFarlane D. 2012. Circadian and circannual rhythms of cortisol, ACTH, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in healthy horses. Domest Anim Endocrinol 43:317. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Copas VE, Durham AE. 2012. Circannual variation in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations in the UK in normal horses and ponies, and those with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Equine Vet J 44:440. PUBMED Abstract
  26. McFarlane D, Paradis MR, Zimmel D, et al. 2011. The effect of geographic location, breed, and pituitary dysfunction on seasonal adrenocorticotropin and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone plasma concentrations in horses. J Vet Intern Med 25:872. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Funk RA, Stewart AJ, Wooldridge AA, et al. 2011. Seasonal changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal, aged horses. J Vet Intern Med 25:579. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Spelta CW, Axon JE. 2012. Case series of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in a tropical climate. Aust Vet J 90:451. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Altmeyer R, Stohr L, Holzmann H. 1986. Seasonal rhythm of the plasma level of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. J Invest Dermatol 86:454. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Lincoln GA, Rhind SM, Pompolo S, et al. 2001. Hypothalamic control of photoperiod-induced cycles in food intake, body weight, and metabolic hormones in rams. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281:R76. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Logan A, Weatherhead B. 1979. Photoperiodic dependence of seasonal variations in melanocyte-stimulating hormone content of the pituitary gland in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) (abstract). J Endocrinol 83:41P.
  32. Brosnahan MM, Paradis MR. 2003. Assessment of clinical characteristics, management practices, and activities of geriatric horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:99. PUBMED Abstract
  33. McGowan TW, Pinchbeck G, Phillips CJ, et al. 2010. A survey of aged horses in Queensland, Australia. Part 2: Clinical signs and owners' perceptions of health and welfare. Aust Vet J 88:465. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Ireland JL, Clegg PD, McGowan CM, et al. 2012. Disease prevalence in geriatric horses in the United Kingdom: veterinary clinical assessment of 200 cases. Equine Vet J 44:101. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Orth DN, Holscher MA, Wilson MG, et al. 1982. Equine Cushing's disease: plasma immunoreactive proopiolipomelanocortin peptide and cortisol levels basally and in response to diagnostic tests. Endocrinol 110:1430.
  36. Donaldson MT, LaMonte BH, Morresey P, et al. 2002. Treatment with pergolide or cyproheptadine of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (equine Cushing's disease). J Vet Intern Med 16:742. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Perkins GA, Lamb S, Erb HN, et al. 2002. Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations and clinical response in horses treated for equine Cushing's disease with cyproheptadine or pergolide. Equine Vet J 34:679. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Schott HC, Coursen CL, Eberhart SW, et al. 2001. The Michigan Cushing's Project, Proceedings of the 47th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, p 22. San Diego, CA.
  39. FDA Freedom of Information Summary Prascend. 2011. [WWW page]., accessed Dec 24, 2013.
  40. McFarlane D, Dybdal N, Donaldson MT, et al. 2005. Nitration and increased alpha-synuclein expression associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration in equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Neuroendocrinol 17:73. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Goudreau JL, Falls WM, Lookingland KJ, et al. 1995. Periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neurons innervate the intermediate but not the neural lobe of the rat pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinol 62:147. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Keen JA, McLaren M, Chandler KJ, et al. 2004. Biochemical indices of vascular function, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress in horses with equine Cushing's disease. Equine Vet J 36:226. PUBMED Abstract
  43. McFarlane D, Cribb AE. 2005. Systemic and pituitary pars intermedia antioxidant capacity associated with pars intermedia oxidative stress and dysfunction in horses. Am J Vet Res 66:2065. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Schott HC. 2002. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: equine Cushing's disease. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:237. PUBMED Abstract
  45. McFarlane D. 2011. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 27:93. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Hillyer MH, Taylor FRG, Mair TS, et al. 1992. Diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 4:131.
  47. Couetil L, Paradis MR, Knoll J. 1996. Plasma adrenocorticotropin concentration in healthy horses and in horses with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 10:1. PUBMED Abstract
  48. van der Kolk JH, Kalsbveek HC, van Garderen E, et al. 1993. Equine pituitary neoplasia: a clinical report of 21 cases (1990-1992). Vet Record 133:594. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Donaldson MT, Jorgensen AJ, Beech J. 2004. Evaluation of suspected pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses with laminitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:1123. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Karikoski NP, Horn I, McGowan TW, et al. 2011. The prevalence of endocrinopathic laminitis among horses presented for laminitis at a first opinion/referral equine hospital. Domest Anim Endocrinol 41:111. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Asplin KE, Sillence MN, Pollitt CC, et al. 2007. Induction of laminitis by prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in clinically normal ponies. Vet J 174:530. PUBMED Abstract
  52. de Laat MA, McGowan CM, Sillence MN, et al. 2010. Equine laminitis: induced by 48 h hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses. Equine Vet J 42:129. PUBMED Abstract
  53. de Laat MA, Sillence MN, McGowan CM, et al. 2012. Continuous intravenous infusion of glucose induces endogenous hyperinsulinaemia and lamellar histopathology in Standardbred horses. Vet J 191:317. PUBMED Abstract
  54. de Laat MA, van Eps AW, McGowan CM, et al. 2011. Equine laminitis: comparative histopathology 48 hours after experimental induction with insulin or alimentary oligofructose in Standardbred horse. J Comp Pathol 145:399. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Carter RA, Treiber KH, Geor RJ, et al. 2009. Prediction of incipient pasture-associated laminitis from hyperinsulinaemia, hyperleptinaemia and generalised and localised obesity in a cohort of ponies. Equine Vet J 41:171. PUBMED Abstract
  56. de Laat MA, McGowan CM, Sillence MN, et al. 2010. Hyperinsulinemic laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 26:257. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Aleman M, Watson JL, Williams DC, et al. 2006. Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Neuromuscul Disord 16:737. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Boujon CE, Bestetti GE, Meier HP, et al. 1993. Equine pituitary adenoma: a functional and morphological study. J Comp Pathol 109:163. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Heinrichs M, Baumgartner W, Capen CC. 1990. Immunocytochemical demonstration of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in pituitary adenomas of the pars intermedia in horses. Vet Pathol 27:419. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Biewenga WJ, Rijnberk A, Mol JA. 1991. Osmoregulation of systemic vasopressin release during long-term glucocorticoid excess: a study in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 124:58. PUBMED Abstract
  61. McFarlane D, Hale GM, Johnson EM, et al. 2010. Fecal egg counts after anthelmintic administration to aged horses and horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Am Vet Med Assoc 236:330. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Glover C, Miller LM, Dybdal NO, et al. 2009. Extrapituitary and pituitary pathological changes in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, a retrospective study. J Equine Vet Sci 29:146.
  63. Dybdal NO, Hargreaves KM, Madigan JE, et al. 1994. Diagnostic testing for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:627. PUBMED Abstract
  64. McFarlane D, Breshears MA, Cordero M, et al. 2012. Comparison of plasma ACTH concentration, α-MSH concentration and overnight dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis of PPID. Proceedings of American College of Veterinary Medicine Forum, May 30-Jun 2. New Orleans, LA.
  65. Horowitz ML, Neal L, Watson JL. 2003. Characteristics of plasma adrenocorticotropin, α-endorphin and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone as diagnostic tests for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in the horse (abstract). J Vet Intern Med 17:386.
  66. Beech J, Boston RC, McFarlane D, et al. 2009. Evaluation of plasma ACTH, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and insulin concentrations during various photoperiods in clinically normal horses and ponies and those with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Am Vet Med Assoc 235:715. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Beech J, Boston R, Linborg S. 2011. Comparison of cortisol and ACTH responses after administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone in normal horses and those with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Vet Intern Med 25:1431. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Beech J, McFarlane D, Lindbourg S, et al. 2011. α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropin concentrations in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and comparison with adrenocorticotropin concentration after domperidone administration in healthy horses and horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238:1305. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Beech J, Boston R, Lindborg S, et al. 2007. Adrenocorticotropin concentration following administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy horses and those with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and pituitary gland hyperplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:417. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Beech J, Garcia M. 1985. Hormonal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy horses and in horses with pituitary adenoma. Am J Vet Res 46:1941. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Cordero M, Shrauner B, McFarlane D. 2011. Bioactivity of plasma ACTH from horses with PPID compared to normal horses (abstract). J Vet Intern Med 25:664.
  72. Orth DN, Nicolson WE. 1982. Bioactive and immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin in normal equine pituitary and in pituitary tumors of horses with Cushing's disease. Endocrinology 111:559. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Donaldson MT, McDonnell SM, Schanbacher BJ, et al. 2004. Variation in plasma ACTH concentration and dexamethasone suppression test results with season, age and sex in healthy ponies and horses. J Vet Intern Med 19:217. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Place NJ, McGowan CM, Lamb SV, et al. 2010. Seasonal variation in serum concentrations of selected metabolic hormones in horses. J Vet Intern Med 24:650. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Allen JR, Barbee DD, Crisman MV. 1988. Diagnosis of equine pituitary tumors by computed tomography—part 1. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 10:1103.
  76. McKlveen TL, Jones JC, Sponenberg DP, et al. 2003. Assessment of the accuracy of computed tomography for measurement of normal equine pituitary glands. Am J Vet Res 64:1387. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Pease AP, Schott HC, Howey EB, et al. 2011. Computed tomographic findings in the pituitary gland and brain of horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Vet Intern Med 25:1144. PUBMED Abstract
  78. EquiMed. 2013. [WWW page]., accessed July 31, 2013.
  79. van der Kolk JH, Heinrichs M, van Amerongen JD, et al. 2004. Evaluation of pituitary gland anatomy and histopathologic findings in clinically normal horses and horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia adenoma. Am J Vet Res 65:1701. PUBMED Abstract
  80. McFarlane D, Miller LM, Craig LE, et al. 2005. Agreement in histologic assessments of the pituitary pars intermedia in aged horses. Am J Vet Res 66:2055. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Cordero M, McFarlane D, Breshears M, et al. 2012. The effect of season on histologic and histomorphometric appearance of the equine pituitary gland. J Equine Vet Res 32:75.
  82. Miller MA, Pardo ID, Jackson LP, et al. 2008. Correlation of pituitary hisomorphometry with adrenocorticotropic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Vet Path 45:26. PUBMED Abstract

Adrenal Glands

  1. Hardee G, Wang Lai J, Semrad S, et al. 1982. Catecholamines in equine and bovine plasmas. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 5:279. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Hoffsis G, Murdick P, Tharp V, et al. 1970. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone in the normal horse. Am J Vet Res 31:1379. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Wiebke A, Stewart P. 2005. Adrenal corticosteroid biosynthesis, metabolism, and action. Endocr Metab Clin N Am 34:293. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Adcock R, Kattesh H, Robert M, et al. 2006. Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 hour period. J Anim Vet Adv 5:85. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Irvine C, Alexander S. 1987. Measurement of free cortisol and the capacity and association constant of cortisol-binding proteins in plasma of foals and adult horses. J Reprod Fert Suppl 35:19. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Lewis J, Bagley C, Elder P, et al. 2005. Plasma free cortisol fraction reflects levels of functioning corticosteroid-binding globulin. Clin Chim Acta 359:189. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Meyer H, Rothuizen J. 1993. Determination of the percentage of free cortisol in plasma in the dog by ultrafiltration/dialysis. Dom An Endocrin 10:45. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Rijnberk A, Mol J. 1997. Adrenocortical function, pp 553-570. In Kaneko J, Harvey J, Bruss M (eds), Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, ed 5. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  9. Alexander S, Irvine C, Donald R. 1996. Dynamics of the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis determined using a nonsurgical method for collecting pituitary venous blood from horses. Front Neuroendocrinol 17:1. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Lefcourt A, Bitman J, Kahl S, et al. 1993. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of peripheral cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 76:2607. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Stewart P. 2008. The adrenal cortex, pp 445-503. In Kronenberg H, Melmed S, Polonsky K, et al (eds), Williams textbook of endocrinology, ed 11. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Hart K, Dirikolu L, Ferguson D, et al. 2012. Daily endogenous cortisol production and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics in adult horses and neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 73:68. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Hart K. 2012. ACTH and cortisol secretion patterns during illness in horses and foals, unpublished data.
  14. Bousquet-Melou A, Formentini E, Picard-Hagen N, et al. 2006. The adrenocorticotropin stimulation test: contribution of a physiologically based model developed in horse for its interpretation in different pathophysiologic situations encountered in man. Endocrinology 147:4281. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Martin L, Behrend E, Mealey K, et al. 2007. Effect of low doses of cosyntropin in serum cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 268:555. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Stewart A, Behrend E, Wright J, et al. 2011. Validation of a low-dose ACTH stimulation test in healthy adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 239:834. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Silver M, Ousey J, Dudan F, et al. 1984. Studies on equine prematurity 2: postnatal adrenocortical activity in relation to plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and catecholamine levels in term and premature foals. Equine Vet J 16:278.
  18. Silver M, Fowden A. 1994. Prepartum adrenocortical maturation in the fetal foal: responses to ACTH. J Endocrinol 142:417. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Ousey J, Rossdale P, Fowden A, et al. 2004. Effects of manipulating intrauterine growth on post natal adrenocortical development and other parameters of maturity in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 36:616. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Rossdale P, Ousey J. 1984. Studies on equine prematurity 6: guidelines for assessment of foal maturity. Equine Vet J 16:300. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Han X, Fowden A, Silver M, et al. 1995. Immunohistochemical localisation of steroidogenic enzymes and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase (PNMT) in the adrenal gland of the fetal and newborn foal. Equine Vet J 27:140. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Weng Q, Tanaka Y, Taniyama H, et al. 2007. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. J Reprod Devel 53:1093. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Riley S, Boshier D, Luu-The V, et al. 1992. Immunohistochemical localization of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid/delta 5-delta 4-isomerase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase in adrenal glands of sheep fetuses throughout gestation and in neonates. J Reprod Fertil 96:127. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Donaldson M, McDonnell S, Schanbacher B, et al. 2005. Variation in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration and dexamethasone suppression test results with season, age, and sex in healthy ponies and horses. J Vet Intern Med 19:217. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Hart K, Heusner G, Norton N, et al. 2009. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis assessment in healthy term neonatal foals utilizing a paired low dose/high dose ACTH stimulation test. J Vet Intern Med 23:344. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Irvine C, Alexander S. 1994. Factors affecting the circadian rhythm in plasma cortisol concentrations in the horse. Domest Anim Endocrinol 11:227. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Hedberg Y, Dalin A, Forsberg M, et al. 2007. Effect of ACTH (tetracosactide) on steroid hormone levels in the mare. Part A: effect in intact normal mares and mares with possible estrous related behavioral abnormalities. Anim Reprod Sci 100:73. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Place N, McGowan C, Lamb S, et al. 2010. Seasonal variation in serum concentrations of selected metabolic hormones in horses. J Vet Intern Med 24:650. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Silver M, Fowden A, Know J, et al. 1987. Sympathoadrenal and other responses to hypoglycaemia in the young foal. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 35:607. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Wong D, Vo D, Alcott C, et al. 2009. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age. Can J Vet Res 73:65. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Hart K, Barton M, Ferguson D, et al. 2011. Serum free cortisol fraction in healthy and septic neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 25:345. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Rokicki W, Forest M, Loras B, et al. 1990. Free cortisol of human plasma in the first three months of life. Biol Neonate 57:21. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Stahl F, Amendt P, Dorner G. 1979. Total and free cortisol plasma levels in pre- and post-natal life. Endokrinologie 74:243. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Bright G. 1995. Corticosteroid-binding globulin influences kinetic parameters of plasma cortisol transport and clearance. J Clin Endocrin Metab 80:770. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Corrigan A, Behrend E, Martin L, et al. 2010. Effect of glucocorticoid administration on serum aldosterone concentration in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 71:649. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Guthrie G, Cecil S, Darden E, et al. 1981. Dynamics of renin and aldosterone in the Thoroughbred horse. Gen Comp Endocrinol 48:296. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Young W. 2008. Endocrine hypertension, pp 505-537. In Kronenberg H, Melmed S, Polonsky K, et al (eds), Williams textbook of endocrinology, ed 11. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  38. Harris P. 1993. Preliminary investigations that affect plasma aldosterone concentrations in horses. Res Vet Sci 54:319. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Jansson A, Johannisson A, Kvart C. 2010. Plasma aldosterone concentration and cardiovascular response to low sodium intake in horses in training. Equine Vet J Suppl 38:329. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Broughton Pipkin F, Ousey J, Wallace C, et al. 1984. Studies on equine prematurity 4: effect of salt and water loss on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the newborn foal. Equine Vet J 16:292. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Hollis A, Boston R, Corley K. 2008. Plasma aldosterone, vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in hypovolaemia: a preliminary comparative study of neonatal and mature horses. Equine Vet J 40:64. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Haffner J, Fecteau K, Eiler H, et al. 2010. Blood steroid concentrations in domestic Mongolian horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:537. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Aneja R, Carcillo J. 2007. What is the rationale for hydrocortisone treatment in children with infection-related adrenal insufficiency and septic shock. Arch Dis Child 92:165. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Marik P. 2007. Mechanisms and clinical consequences of critical illness associated adrenal insufficiency. Curr Opin Crit Care 13:363. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Marik P. 2009. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Chest 135:181. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Pizarro C, Troster E, Damiani D, et al. 2005. Absolute and relative adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock. Crit Care Med 33:855. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Watterberg K. 2004. Adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the fetus and neonate. Semin Neonatol 9:13. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Annane D, Maxime V, Ibrahim F, et al. 2006. Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:1319. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Loisa P, Rinne T, Kaukinen S. 2002. Adrenocortical function and multiple organ failure in severe sepsis. Acta Anaesthiol Scand 46:145. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Marik P, Zaloga G. 2003. Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock. Crit Care Med 31:141. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Annane D, Sebille V, Troche G, et al. 2000. A 3 level prognostic classification in septic shock based on cortisol levels and cortisol response to corticotropin. J Am Med Assoc 283:1038. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Cooper M, Steward P. 2003. Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients. N Engl J Med 348:727. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Castagnetti C, Rametta M, Tudor Popeia R, et al. 2008. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol in normal and critically-ill neonatal foals. Vet Res Commun 32:S127. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Couetil L, Hoffman A. 1998. Adrenal insufficiency in a neonatal foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:1594. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Gold J, Divers T, Barton M, et al. 2007. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin/cortisol ratios in septic and normal-term foals. J Vet Intern Med 21:791. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Hart K, Slovis N, Barton M. 2009. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in hospitalized neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 23:901. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Hurcombe S, Toribio R, Slovis N, et al. 2008. Blood arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and cortisol concentrations at admission in septic and critically ill foals and their association with survival. J Vet Intern Med 22:639. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Wong D, Vo D, Alcott C, et al. 2009. Baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and response to low dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:126. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Marik P, Pastores S, Annane D, et al. 2008. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 36:1937. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Stewart A, Hackett E, Towns T, et al. 2011. Identification of critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill horses. Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACVIM Forum, Jun 15-18, Denver, CO.
  61. Levin J, Cluff L. 1965. Endotoxemia and adrenal hemorrhage. A mechanism for the Waterhouse-Friderichsen sydrome. J Exp Med 1:247. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Paradis M. 2008. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in neonatal foals: post-mortem findings in 19 foals. Proceedings of the Dorothy Russell Havenmeyer Foundation Equine Neonatal Septicemia Workshop V, Salem, MA.
  63. De Jong F, Mallios C, Jansen C, et al. 1984. Etomidate suppresses adrenocortical function by inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxylation. J Clin Endocrin Metab 59:1143. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Beishuizen A, Thijs L. 2003. Endotoxin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. J Endotoxin Res 9:3. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Gaillard R. 2003. Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immunological system, pp 109-135. In Gaillard R (ed), The ACTH axis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
  66. Judd A, Call G, Barney M, et al. 2000. Possible function of IL-6 and TNF as intraadrenal factors in the regulation of adrenal steroid secretion. Ann NY Acad Sci 917:628. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Sharshar T, Gray F, Lorin de la Grandmaison G, et al. 2003. Apoptosis of neurons in cardiovascular autonomic centers triggered by inducible nitric oxide synthase after death from septic shock. Lancet 362:1799. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Aubry J, Turnbull A, Pozzoli G, et al. 1997. Endotoxin decreases corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the rat pituitary. Endocrinology 138:1621. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Qahwash I, Cassar C, Radcliff R, et al. 2002. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced coordinate downregulation of arginine vasopressin receptor V3 and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 messenger ribonucleic acids in the anterior pituitary of endotoxemic steers. Endocrine 18:13. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Hart K, Barton M, Norton N, et al. 2012. Demonstration of endogenous inflammatory cytokine production by equine adrenocortical tissue in an ex vivo model. Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, New Orleans, LA.
  71. Gold J, Cohen N, Welsh T. 2010. Correlation of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol with peripheral leukocyte cytokine expression in septic and non-septic neonatal foals. Annual Forum American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, June 9-12, Anaheim, CA.
  72. Liu L, Sun B, Tian Y, et al. 1993. Changes of pulmonary glucocorticoid receptor and phospholipase A2 in sheep with acute lung injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:878. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Liu D, Su Y, Zhang W, et al. 2002. Changes in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors of liver and kidney cytosols after pathologic stress and its regulation in rats. Crit Care Med 30:623. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Meduri G, Muthiah M, Carratu P, et al. 2005. Nuclear factor-kβ- and glucocorticoid receptor α-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of systemic and pulmonary inflammation during sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neuroimmunodulation 12:321.
  75. Martin L. 2011. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41:767. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Corley K, Donaldson L, Furr M. 2005. Arterial lactate concentration, hospital survival, sepsis, and SIRS, in critically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 37:53. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Epstein K, Brainard B, Gomez-Ibanez S, et al. 2011. Thromboelastography in horses with acute gastrointestinal disease. J Vet Intern Med 25:307. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Singh A, Jiang Y, White T, et al. 1997. Validation of nonradioactive chemiluminescent immunoassay methods for the analysis of thyroxine and cortisol in blood samples obtained from dogs, cats, and horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 9:261. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Flisinska-Bojanowska A, Grzelkowska K. 1992. Diurnal changes in cortisol level, neutrophil number, and lysozyme activity in foals during the first 13 weeks of life and in their lactating mothers. J Vet Med 39:641. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Kozyra E, Wax R, Burry L. 2005. Can 1 μg of cosyntropin be used to evaluate adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients? Ann Pharmacother 39:691. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Hart K, Ferguson D, Heusner G, et al. 2007. Synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 21:314. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Alexander S, Roud H, Irvine C. 1997. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on secretion patterns and rates of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and adrenocorticotrophin in horses. J Endocrinol 153:401. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Reijerkerk E, Visser E, van Reenen C, et al. 2009. Effects of various doses of ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone on plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations in the horse. Am J Vet Res 70:361. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Luna S, Taylor P, Wheeler M. 1996. Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic changes in ponies undergoing intravenous or inhalation anaesthesia. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 19:251. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Cohen J, Venkatesh B. 2009. Assessment of tissue cortisol activity. Crit Care Resusc 11:287. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Fernandez E, Watterberg K. 2009. Relative adrenal insufficiency in the preterm and term infant. J Perinatol 29:S44. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, et al. 2002. Effect of treatment with low dose hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. J Am Med Assoc 288:862. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Hart K, Barton M, Vandenplas M, et al. 2011. Effects of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy on immune function in neonatal horses. Pediatr Res 70:72. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Dowling P, Williams M, Clark T. 1994. Adrenal insufficiency associated with long-term anabolic steroid administration in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:1166. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Baker H, Baker I, Epstein V, et al. 1982. Effect of stress on steroid hormone levels in racehorses. Aust Vet J 58:70. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Dybdal N, Gribble D, Madigan J, et al. 1980. Alterations in plasma corticosteroids, insulin and selected metabolites in horses used in endurance rides. Equine Vet J 12:137. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Johnson P, Goetz T, Foreman J, et al. 1995. Pheochromocytoma in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:837. PUBMED Abstract
  93. Yovich J, Ducharme N. 1983. Ruptured pheochromocytoma in a mare with colic. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:462. PUBMED Abstract
  94. Yovich J, Horney F, Hardee G. 1984. Pheochromocytoma in the horse and measurement of norepinephrine levels in horses. Can Vet J 25:21. PUBMED Abstract
  95. De Cock H, MacLachlan N. 1999. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple neoplasms and hyperplasias in the adrenal and thyroid gland of the horse resembling multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome: case report and retrospective identification of additional cases. Vet Pathol 366:633.
  96. Germann S, Rutten M, Derungs S, et al. 2006. Multiple endocrine neoplasia-like syndrome in a horse. Vet Rec 159:530. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Butterworth K, Pellegrini-Masini A, Barton M. 2012. Diagnosis and management of hypoaldosteronism without hypoadrenocorticism in an alpaca. J Am Vet Med Assoc 240:748. PUBMED Abstract
  98. Unwin R, Capasso G. 2000. The renal tubular acidoses. J R Soc Med 94:221. PUBMED Abstract


  1. Johnson EB, MacKay RJ, Hernandez JA. 2010. An epidemiologic study of anhidrosis in horses in Florida. J Am Vet Med Assoc 236:1091. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Robertshaw D, Taylor CR. 1969. Sweat gland function of the donkey (Equus asinus). J Physiol 205:79. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Snow DH. 1977. Identification of the receptor involved in adrenaline mediated sweating in the horse. Res Vet Sci 23:246. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Hodgson DR, McCutcheon LJ, Byrd SK, et al. 1993. Dissipation of metabolic heat in the horse during exercise. J Appl Physiol 74:1161. PUBMED Abstract
  5. McEwan Jenkinson D, Elder HY, Bovell DL. 2006. Equine sweating and anhidrosis. Part 1—equine sweating. Vet Dermatol 17:361. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Evans CL, Smith DFG, Ross KA, et al. 1957. Physiological factors in the condition of “dry coat” in horses. Vet Rec 69:1.
  7. Jenkinson DM, Montgomery I, Elder HY, et al. 1985. Ultrastructural variations in the sweat glands of anhidrotic horses. Equine Vet J 17:287. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Beadle RE, Norwood GL, Brenwick VA. 1982. Summertime plasma catecholamine concentrations in healthy and anhidrotic horses in Louisiana. Am J Vet Res 43:1446. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Wilson DC, Corbett AD, Steel C, et al. 2007. A preliminary study of the short circuit current (Isc) responses of sweat gland cells from normal and anhidrotic horses to purinergic and adrenergic agonists. Vet Dermatol 18:152. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Mayhew IG, Ferguson HO. 1987. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and epidemiologic features of anhidrosis in central Florida Thoroughbred horses. J Vet Med 1:136. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Maqsood M. 1957. Iodinated casein therapy for the non-sweating syndrome in horses. Vet Rec 101:475.
  12. Breuhaus BA. 2009. Thyroid function in anhidrotic horses. J Vet Int Med 23:168. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Murakami K, Sobue G, Terao S, et al. 1988. Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis: a distinctive clinical syndrome. J Neurol 235:428. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Yoritaka A, Hishima T, Akagi K, et al. 2006. Successful steroid treatment of acquired idiopathic partial hypohidrosis. J Dermatol 33:265. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Bovell DL, Lindsay SL, Corbett AD, et al. 2006. Immunolocalization of aquaporin-5 expression in sweat gland cells from normal and anhidrotic horses. Vet Dermatol 17:17. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Guthrie AJ. 1992. Use of semi-quantitative sweat test in Thoroughbred horses. J S Afr Vet Assoc 63:162. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Hubert JD, Beadle RE. 1998. Equine anhidrosis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 20:846.
  18. Hubert JD, Beadle RE, Norwood G. 2002. Equine anhidrosis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:355. PUBMED Abstract
  19. MacKay RJ. 2008. Quantitative intradermal terbutaline sweat test in horses. Equine Vet J 40:518. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Marsh JH. 1961. Treatment of “dry coat” in Thoroughbreds with vitamin E. Vet Rec 73:1134.
  21. Currie AW, Seager SWJ. 1976. Anhidrosis. Proceed Am Assoc Equine Pract 22:249.
  22. Evans CL. 1966. Physiological mechanisms that underlie sweating in the horse. Br Vet J 122:117. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Read JR, Boston RC, Abraham G, et al. 2012. Effect of prolonged administration of clenbuterol on airway reactivity and sweating in horses with inflammatory airway disease. Am J Vet Res 73:140. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Sin DD, Man SF. 2006. Corticosteroids and adrenoceptor agonists: the compliments for combination therapy in chronic airways diseases. Eur J Pharmacol 533:28-35. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Johnson M. 2006. Molecular mechanisms of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor function, response, and regulation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:18. PUBMED Abstract

Thyroid Disease

  1. Breuhaus BA. 2011. Disorders of the equine thyroid gland. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 27:115. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Schlotthauer CF. 1931. The incidence and types of disease of the thyroid gland of adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 78:211.
  3. Dalefield RR, Palmer DN. 1994. The frequent occurrence of thyroid tumours in aged horses. J Comp Path 110:57. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Ramirez S, McClure JJ, Moore RM, et al. 1998. Hyperthyroidism associated with a thyroid adenocarcinoma in a 21-year-old gelding. J Vet Intern Med 12:475. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Alberts MK, McCann JP, Woods PR. 2000. Hemithyroidectomy in a horse with confirmed hyperthyroidism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1051. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Tan RH, Davies SE, Crisman MV, et al. 2008. Propylthiouracil for treatment of hyperthyroidism in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 22:1253. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Perillo A, Passantino G, Passantino L, et al. 2005. First observation of a Hashimoto thyroiditis–like disease in horses from Eastern Europe: histopathological and immunological findings. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 27:241. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Frank N, Buchanan BR, Elliott SB. 2008. Effects of long-term oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, clinicopathologic variables, and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses. Am J Vet Res 69:68. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Sawin CT. 2003. Thyroid disease in older persons, pp 85-105. In Braverman LE (ed), Diseases of the thyroid, ed 2. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
  10. Stanley O, Hillidge CJ. 1982. Alopecia associated with hypothyroidism in a horse. Equine Vet J 14:165. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Held JP, Patton CS, Toal RL, et al. 1985. Work intolerance in a horse with thyroid carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:1044. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Hillyer MN, Taylor FGR. 1992. Cutaneous manifestations of suspected hypothyroidism in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 4:116.
  13. Lowe JE, Baldwin BH, Foote RH, et al. 1974. Equine hypothyroidism: the long term effects of thyroidectomy on metabolism and growth in mares and stallions. Cornell Vet 64:276. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Lowe JE, Baldwin BH, Foote RH, et al. 1975. Semen characteristics in thyroidectomized stallions. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 23:81. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Lowe JE, Foote RH, Baldwin BH, et al. 1987. Reproductive patterns in cyclic and pregnant thyroidectomized mares. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 35:281. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Frank N, Sojka JE, Latour MA, et al. 1999. Effect of hypothyroidism on blood lipid concentrations in horses. Am J Vet Res 60:730. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Vischer CM, Foreman JH, Constable PD, et al. 1999. Hemodynamic effects of thyroidectomy in sedentary horses. Am J Vet Res 60:14. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Breuhaus BA. 2002. Thyroid stimulating hormone in euthyroid and hypothyroid horses. J Vet Intern Med 16:109. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Cartmill JA, Thompson DL Jr, Gentry LR, et al. 2003. Effects of dexamethasone, glucose infusion, adrenocorticotropin, and propylthiouracil on plasma leptin concentrations in horses. Domest Anim Endocrinol 24:1. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Frank N, Sojka JE, Latour MA. 2003. Effects of hypothyroidism and withholding of feed on plasma lipid concentrations, concentration and composition of very-low-density lipoprotein, and plasma lipase activity in horses. Am J Vet Res 64:823. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Frank N, Sojka JE, Patterson BW, et al. 2003. Effect of hypothyroidism on kinetics of metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein in mares. Am J Vet Res 64:1052. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Johnson PJ, Messer NT 4th, Ganjam VK, et al. 2003. Effects of propylthiouracil and bromocryptine on serum concentrations of thyrotrophin and thyroid hormones in normal female horses. Equine Vet J 35:296. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Alexander SL, Irvine CH, Evans MJ. 2004. Inter-relationships between the secretory dynamics of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin in periovulatory mares: effect of hypothyroidism. J Neuroendocrinol 16:906. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Frank N, Sojka JE, Latour MA. 2004. Effect of hypothyroidism on the blood lipid response to higher dietary fat intake in mares. J Anim Sci 82:2640. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Buff PR, Messer NT 4th, Cogswell AM, et al. 2007. Induction of pulsatile secretion of leptin in horses following thyroidectomy. J Endocrinol 192:353. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Messer NT, Johnson PJ, Refsal KR, et al. 1995. Effect of food deprivation on baseline iodothyronine and cortisol concentrations in healthy, adult horses. Am J Vet Res 56:116. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Morris DD, Garcia M. 1983. Thyroid-stimulating hormone: response test in healthy horses, and effect of phenylbutazone on equine thyroid hormones. Am J Vet Res 44:503. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Morris DD, Garcia M. 1985. Effects of phenylbutazone and anabolic steroids on adrenal and thyroid gland function tests in healthy horses. Am J Vet Res 46:359. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Sojka JE, Johnson MA, Bottoms GD. 1993. Serum triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and free thyroxine concentrations in horses. Am J Vet Res 54:52. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Ramirez S, Wolfsheimer KJ, Moore RM, et al. 1997. Duration of effects of phenylbutazone on serum total thyroxine and free thyroxine concentrations in horses. J Vet Intern Med 11:371. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Messer NT, Ganjam VK, Nachreiner RF et al. 1995. Effects of dexamethasone administration on serum thyroid hormone concentrations in clinically normal horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:63. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Abraham G, Allersmeier M, Schusser GF, et al. 2011. Serum thyroid hormone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and protein concentrations in normal horses: association with topical dexamethasone usage. Vet J 188:307. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Graves EA, Schott HC 2nd, Marteniuk JV, et al. 2006. Thyroid hormone responses to endurance exercise. Equine Vet J Suppl 36:32. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Glade MJ, Reimers TJ. 1985. Effects of dietary energy supply on serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine and insulin concentrations in young horses. J Endocrinol 104:93. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Swinker AM, McCurley JR, Jordan ER, et al. 1989. Effects of dietary excesses on equine serum thyroid hormone levels. J Anim Sci 65(Suppl 1):255.
  36. Breuhaus BA, Refsal KR, Beyerlein SL. 2006. Measurement of free thyroxine concentration in horses by equilibrium dialysis. J Vet Intern Med 20:371. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Breuhaus BA, LaFevers DH. 2005. Thyroid function in normal, sick and premature foals. J Vet Intern Med 19:445.
  38. Himler M, Hurcombe SD, Griffin A, et al. 2012. Presumptive nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critically ill foals. Equine Vet J 41(Suppl):43. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Slag MF, Morley JE, Elson MK, et al. 1981. Hypothyroxinemia in critically ill patients as a predictor of high mortality. J Am Med Assoc 245:43. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Kaptein EM, Weiner JM, Robinson WJ, et al. 1982. Relationship of altered thyroid hormone indices to survival in nonthyroidal illnesses. Clin Endocrinol 16:565. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Degroot LJ. 1999. Dangerous dogmas in medicine: the nonthyroidal illness syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:151. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Chopra IJ. 1997. Euthyroid sick syndrome: is it a misnomer? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:329. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Kaptein EM, Grieb DA, Spencer CA, et al. 1981. Thyroxine metabolism in the low thyroxine state of critical nonthyroidal illnesses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:764. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Woeber KA, Maddux BA. 1981. Thyroid hormone binding in nonthyroid illness. Metabolism 30:412. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Oppenheimer JH, Schwartz HL, Mariash CN, et al. 1982. Evidence for a factor in the sera of patients with nonthyroidal diseases which inhibits iodothyronine binding by solid matrices, serum proteins, and rat hepatocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54:619.
  46. Evans TJ. 2002. Endocrine alterations associated with ergopeptine alkaloid exposure during equine pregnancy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:371. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Scanlon MF. 1997. Control of TRH and TSH secretion, pp 11-31. In Weetman AP and Grossman A (eds), Pharmacokinetics of the thyroid gland. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  48. Messer NT, Riddle T, Traub-Dargatz JL, et al. 1998. Thyroid hormone levels in Thoroughbred mares and their foals at parturition. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Dec 6-9, Baltimore, MD.
  49. Breuhaus BA. Thyroid function in adult horses consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed. 2003. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:340. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Frank N, Elliott SB, Boston RC. 2008. Effects of long-term oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on glucose dynamics in healthy adult horses. Am J Vet Res 69:76. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Bilezikian JP, Loeb JN, Gammon DE. 1979. The influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the β-adrenergic responsiveness of the turkey erythrocyte. J Clin Invest 63:184. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Stiles GL, Stadel JM, De Lean A, et al. 1981. Hypothyroidism modulates beta adrenergic receptor-adenylase cyclase interactions in rat reticulocytes. J Clin Invest 68:1450. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Lefkowitz RJ, Caron MG, Stiles GL. 1984. Mechanisms of membrane receptor regulation. Biochemical, physiological, and clinical insights derived from studies of the adrenergic receptors. N Engl J Med 310:1570. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Frank N, Sommardahl CS, Eiler H, et al. 2005. Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on concentrations of plasma lipids, concentration and composition of very-low-density lipoproteins, and glucose dynamics in healthy adult mares. Am J Vet Res 66:1032. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Maqsood M. 1957. Iodinated casein therapy for the non-sweating syndrome in horses. Vet Rec 101:475.
  56. Breuhaus BA. 2009. Thyroid function in anhidrotic horses. J Vet Intern Med 23:168. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Waldron-Mease E. 1979. Hypothyroidism and myopathy in racing Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds. J Equine Med Surg 3:124.
  58. Harris P, Marlin D, Gray J. 1992. Equine thyroid function tests: a preliminary investigation. Br Vet J 148:71. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Valberg SJ, Mickelson JR, Gallant EM, et al. 1999. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds: one syndrome, multiple aetiologies. Equine Vet J 30(Suppl):533. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Gutierrez CV, Riddle WT, Bramlage LR. 2002. Serum thyroxine concentrations and pregnancy rates 15 to 16 days after ovulation in broodmares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:64. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Meredith TB, Dobrinski I. 2004. Thyroid function and pregnancy status in broodmares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:892. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Mendoza FJ, Perez-Ecija RA, Toribio RE, et al. 2013. Thyroid hormone concentrations differ between donkeys and horses. Equine Vet J 45:214. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Beech J, Garcia M. 1985. Hormonal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy horses and in horses with pituitary adenoma. Am J Vet Res 46:1941. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Chen CL, Li WI. 1986. Effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on serum levels of thyroid hormones in Thoroughbred mares. J Equine Vet Sci 6:58.
  65. Held JP, Oliver JW. 1984. A sampling protocol for the thyrotropin-stimulating test in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:326. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Lothrup CD, Nolan HL. 1986. Equine thyroid function assessment with the thyrotropin-releasing hormone response test. Am J Vet Res 47:942. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Sommardahl CS, Frank N, Elliott SB, et al. 2005. Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones and responses to injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy adult mares. Am J Vet Res 66:1025. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Kaptein EM, MacIntyre SS, Weiner JM, et al. 1981. Free thyroxine estimate in nonthyroidal illness: comparison of eight methods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:1073. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Ekins RP. 1985. Principles of measuring free thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. NucCompact 16:305.
  70. Alexander NM. 1986. Free thyroxin in serum: labeled thyroxin-analog methods fall short of their mark. Clin Chem 32:417. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Nelson JC, Tomei RT. 1988. Direct determination of free thyroxin in undiluted serum by equilibrium dialysis/radioimmunoassay. Clin Chem 34:1737. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Herbomez M, Forzy G, Gasser F, et al. 2003. Clinical evaluation of nine free thyroxine assays: persistent problems in particular populations. Clin Chem Lab Med 41:942. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Schachter S, Nelson RW, Scott-Moncrieff C, et al. 2004. Comparison of serum-free thyroxine concentrations determined by standard equilibrium dialysis, modified equilibrium dialysis, and 5 radioimmunoassays in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 18:259.
  74. Chen CL, McNulty ME, McNulty BA, et al. 1984. Serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in mature horses following oral administration of synthetic thyroxine (Synthroid R). J Equine Vet Sci 4:5.
  75. Frank N, Sojka J, Messer NT. 2002. Equine thyroid dysfunction. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:305. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Silver M, Fowden AL, Knox J, et al. 1991. Relationship between circulating tri-iodothyronine and cortisol in the perinatal period in the foal. J Reprod Fert 44(Suppl):619. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Irvine CHG, Evans MJ. 1975. Post-natal changes in total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in foal serum. J Reprod Fertil 23(Suppl):709. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Chen CL, Riley AM. 1981. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in neonatal foals and mature horses. Am J Vet Res 42:1415. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Kaciuba-Uscilko H. 1971. The effect of previous thyroxine administration on the metabolic response to adrenaline in new-born pigs. Biol Neonate 19:220. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Hitchcock KR. 1979. Hormones and the lung. I. Thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids in lung development. Anat Rec 194:15. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Irvine CHG. 1984. Hypothyroidism in the foal. Equine Vet J 16:302. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Van Wassenaer AG, Kok JH, Briet JM, et al. 1997. Thyroid function in preterm newborns; is T4 treatment required in infants <27 weeks' gestational age? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 105(Suppl 4):12. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Fisher DA. 1999. Hypothyroxinemia in premature infants: is thyroxine treatment necessary? Thyroid 9:715. PUBMED Abstract
  84. LaFranchi S. 1999. Thyroid function in the preterm infant. Thyroid 9:71. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Yeung MY, Smyth JP. 2002. Hormonal factors in the morbidities associated with extreme prematurity and the potential benefits of hormonal supplement. Biol Neonate 81:1. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Suzumura H, Nitta A, Tsuboi Y, et al. 2011. Thyroxine for transient hypothyroxinemia and cerebral palsy in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Int 53:463. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Schoenberger W, Grimm W, Emmrich P, et al. 1979. Thyroid administration lowers mortality in premature infants. Lancet 2:1181. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Okada J, Iwata S, Hirose A, et al. 2011. Levothyroxine replacement therapy and refractory hypotension out of transitional period in preterm infants. Clin Endocrinol 74:354. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Arlt W, Allolio B. 2003. Adrenal insufficiency. Lancet 361:1881. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Baker HJ, Lindsay JR. 1968. Equine goiter due to excess iodide. J Am Vet Med Assoc 153:1618. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Drew B, Barber WP, Williams DG. 1975. The effect of excess dietary iodine on pregnant mares and foals. Vet Rec 97:93. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Osame S, Shigeru I. 1994. Clinicopathological observations on thoroughbred foals with enlarged thyroid gland. J Vet Med Sci 56:771. PUBMED Abstract
  93. McLaughlin BG, Doige CE. 1982. A study of ossification of carpal and tarsal bones in normal and hypothyroid foals. Can Vet J 23:164. PUBMED Abstract
  94. McLaughlin BG, Doige CE, McLaughlan PS. 1986. Thyroid hormone levels in foals with congenital musculoskeletal lesions. Can Vet J 27:264. PUBMED Abstract
  95. Allen AL, Doige CE, Fretz PB, et al. 1994. Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome. Can Vet J 35:31. PUBMED Abstract
  96. Allen AL, Townsend HGG, Doige CE, et al. 1996. A case-control study of the congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome of foals. Can Vet J 37:349. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Allen AL, Fretz PB, Card CE, et al. 1998. The effects of partial thyroidectomy on the development of the equine fetus. Equine Vet J 30:53. PUBMED Abstract
  98. Hines MT, Gay C, Talcott T. 1997. Congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome of foals: diagnosis and possible risk factors. Proceedings of the 15th American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, May, Lake Buena Vista, FL.

Equine Metabolic Syndrome

  1. Frank N, Geor RJ, Bailey SR, et al. 2010. Equine metabolic syndrome. J Vet Intern Med 24:467. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Henneke DR, Potter GD, Kreider JL, et al. 1983. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Vet J 15:371. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Frank N, Elliott SB, Brandt LE, et al. 2006. Physical characteristics, blood hormone concentrations, and plasma lipid concentrations in obese horses with insulin resistance. J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:1383. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Carter RA, Geor RJ, Burton Staniar W, et al. 2009. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies. Vet J 179:204. PUBMED Abstract
  5. McCue M, Schutlz NE, Martinson K, et al. 2012. Characterization of the equine metabolic syndrome phenotype—Part I: biochemistry, morphometrics and breed comparisons, abstract. Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACVIM Forum, May 30-Jun 2, New Orleans, LA.
  6. Durham AE, Hughes KJ, Cottle HJ, et al. 2009. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with pancreatic beta cell dysfunction in 3 horses confirmed with minimal model analysis. Equine Vet J 41:924. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Ramirez S, Wolfsheimer KJ, Moore RM, et al. 1997. Duration of effects of phenylbutazone on serum total thyroxine and free thyroxine concentrations in horses. J Vet Intern Med 11:371. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Christensen RA, Malinowski K, Massenzio AM, et al. 1997. Acute effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding on circulating concentrations of metabolites, insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, somatotropin, and thyroid hormones in adult geldings. J Anim Sci 75:1351. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Breuhaus BA, Refsal KR, Beyerlein SL. 2006. Measurement of free thyroxine concentration in horses by equilibrium dialysis. J Vet Intern Med 20:371. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Schuver A, Frank N, Chameroy K, et al. 2010. Use of an oral sugar test to assess insulin sensitivity in healthy and insulin-resistant horses (abstract). J Vet Intern Med 24:780.
  11. Borer KE, Bailey SR, Menzies-Gow NJ, et al. 2012. Effect of feeding glucose, fructose, and inulin on blood glucose and insulin concentrations in normal ponies and those predisposed to laminitis. J Anim Sci 90:3003. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Bertin FR, Sojka-Kritchevsky JE. 2012. Comparison of a 2-step insulin-response test to conventional insulin-sensitivity testing in horses. Domest Anim Endocrinol 44:19. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Eiler H, Frank N, Andrews FM, et al. 2005. Physiologic assessment of blood glucose homeostasis via combined intravenous glucose and insulin testing in horses. Am J Vet Res 66:1598. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Treiber KH, Kronfeld DS, Hess TM, et al. 2006. Evaluation of genetic and metabolic predispositions and nutritional risk factors for pasture-associated laminitis in ponies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:1538. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Vick MM, Adams AA, Murphy BA, et al. 2007. Relationships among inflammatory cytokines, obesity, and insulin sensitivity in the horse. J Anim Sci 85:1144. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Gentry LR, Thompson DL Jr, Gentry GT Jr, et al. 2002. The relationship between body condition, leptin, and reproductive and hormonal characteristics of mares during the seasonal anovulatory period. J Anim Sci 80:2695. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Wooldridge AA, Edwards HG, Plaisance EP, et al. 2012. Evaluation of high-molecular weight adiponectin in horses. Am J Vet Res 73:1230. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Burns TA, Geor RJ, Mudge MC, et al. 2010. Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression profiles in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots of insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive light breed horses. J Vet Intern Med 24:932. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Asplin KE, Sillence MN, Pollitt CC, et al. 2007. Induction of laminitis by prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in clinically normal ponies. Vet J 174:530. PUBMED Abstract
  20. de Laat MA, McGowan CM, Sillence MN, et al. 2010. Equine laminitis: induced by 48 h hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses. Equine Vet J 42:129. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Treiber KH, Kronfeld DS, Hess TM, et al. 2005. Use of proxies and reference quintiles obtained from minimal model analysis for determination of insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness in horses. Am J Vet Res 66:2114. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Toth F, Frank N, Martin-Jimenez T, et al. 2010. Measurement of C-peptide concentrations and responses to somatostatin, glucose infusion, and insulin resistance in horses. Equine Vet J 42:149. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Mehran AE, Templeman NM, Brigidi GS, et al. 2012. Hyperinsulinemia drives diet-induced obesity independently of brain insulin production. Cell Metab 16:723. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Phillips LK, Prins JB. 2011. Update on incretin hormones. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1243:E55. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Longland AC, Barfoot C, Harris PA. 2011. Effects of soaking on the water-soluble carbohydrate and crude protein content of hay. Vet Rec 168:618. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Carter RA, Treiber KH, Geor RJ, et al. 2009. Prediction of incipient pasture-associated laminitis from hyperinsulinaemia, hyperleptinaemia and generalised and localised obesity in a cohort of ponies. Equine Vet J 41:171. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Frank N, Buchanan BR, Elliott SB. 2008. Effects of long-term oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, clinicopathologic variables, and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses. Am J Vet Res 69:68. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Durham AE, Rendle DI, Newton JE. 2008. The effect of metformin on measurements of insulin sensitivity and beta cell response in 18 horses and ponies with insulin resistance. Equine Vet J 40:493. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Tinworth KD, Boston RC, Harris PA, et al. 2012. The effect of oral metformin on insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant ponies. Vet J 191:79. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Hustace JL, Firshman AM, Mata JE. 2009. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of metformin in horses. Am J Vet Res 70:665. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Durham AE, Rendle DI, Rutledge F, et al. 2012. The effects of metformin hydrochloride on intestinal glucose absorption and use of tests for hyperinsulinaemia (abstract). Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACVIM Forum, May 30-Jun 2, New Orleans, LA.

Parathyroid Gland, Calcium and Phosphorus Regulation

  1. Rosol TJ, Capen CC. 1997. Calcium-regulating hormones and diseases of abnormal mineral (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) metabolism, pp 619-702. In Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds), Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  2. Toribio RE. 2010. Disorders of calcium and phosphorus, pp 1277-1291. In Reed SM, Bayly WM, Sellon DC (eds), Equine internal medicine. Saunders, St Louis, MO.
  3. Toribio RE. 2011. Disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 27:129. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Lopez I, Estepa JC, Mendoza FJ, et al. 2006. Fractionation of calcium and magnesium in equine serum. Am J Vet Res 67:463. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Berlin D, Aroch I. 2009. Concentrations of ionized and total magnesium and calcium in healthy horses: effects of age, pregnancy, lactation, pH and sample type. Vet J 181:305. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Hurcombe SD, Toribio RE, Slovis NM, et al. 2009. Calcium regulating hormones and serum calcium and magnesium concentrations in septic and critically ill foals and their association with survival. J Vet Intern Med 23:335. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Kohn CW, Brooks CL. 1990. Failure of pH to predict ionized calcium percentage in healthy horses. Am J Vet Res 51:1206. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Hardy J, et al. 2005. Alterations in serum parathyroid hormone and electrolyte concentrations and urinary excretion of electrolytes in horses with induced endotoxemia. J Vet Intern Med 19:223. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Jordan RM, Myers VS, Yoho B, et al. 1975. Effect of calcium and phosphorus levels on growth, reproduction and bone development of ponies. J Anim Sci 40:78. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Schryver HF, Hintz HF, Lowe JE. 1974. Calcium and phosphorus in the nutrition of the horse. Cornell Vet 64:493. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Breidenbach A, Schlumbohm C, Harmeyer J. 1998. Peculiarities of vitamin D and of the calcium and phosphate homeostatic system in horses. Vet Res 29:173. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Maenpaa PH, Lappetelainen R, Virkkunen J. 1987. Serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and alpha-tocopherol of racing trotters in Finland. Equine Vet J 19:237. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Maenpaa PH, Pirhonenn A, Koskinen E. 1988. Vitamin A, E and D nutrition in mares and foals during the winter season: effect of feeding two different vitamin-mineral concentrates. J Anim Sci 66:1424. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Maenpaa PH, Koskinen T, Koskinen E. 1988. Serum profiles of vitamins A, E and D in mares and foals during different seasons. J Anim Sci 66:1418.
  15. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Sams RA, et al. 2003. Hysteresis and calcium set-point for the calcium parathyroid hormone relationship in healthy horses. Gen Comp Endocrinol 130:279. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Capen CC, et al. 2003. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, PTH mRNA and calcium-sensing receptor mRNA expression in equine parathyroid cells, and effects of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on equine parathyroid cell function. J Mol Endocrinol 31:609. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Schryver HF, Craig PH, Hintz HF, et al. 1970. The site of calcium absorption in the horse. J Nutr 100:1127. PUBMED Abstract
  18. McKenzie EC, Valberg SJ, Godden SM, et al. 2002. Plasma and urine electrolyte and mineral concentrations in Thoroughbred horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis after consumption of diets varying in cation-anion balance. Am J Vet Res 63:1053. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Glade MJ, Krook L. 1982. Glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteolysis and the development of osteopetrosis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis. Cornell Vet 72:76. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Glade MJ, Krook L, Schryver HF, et al. 1982. Calcium metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated pony foals. J Nutr 112:77. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Toribio RE. 2007. Essentials of equine renal and urinary tract physiology. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 23:533. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Chew DJ, et al. 2001. Comparison of serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium and magnesium concentrations and fractional urinary clearance of calcium and phosphorus in healthy horses and horses with enterocolitis. Am J Vet Res 62:938. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Endres DB, Rude RK. 2006. Mineral and bone metabolism, pp 1891-1963. In Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds), Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. Saunders, St Louis, MO.
  24. Schryver HF, Hintz HF, Craig PH, et al. 1972. Site of phosphorus absorption from the intestine of the horse. J Nutr 102:143. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Wysolmerski JJ, Stewart AF. 1998. The physiology of parathyroid hormone-related protein: an emerging role as a developmental factor. Annu Rev Physiol 60:431. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Kuro-o M. 2006. Klotho as a regulator of fibroblast growth factor signaling and phosphate/calcium metabolism. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 15:437. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Blaine J, Weinman EJ, Cunningham R. 2011. The regulation of renal phosphate transport. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 18:77. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Bergwitz C, Juppner H. 2010. Regulation of phosphate homeostasis by PTH, vitamin D, and FGF23. Annu Rev Med 61:91. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Berndt T, Kumar R. 2009. Novel mechanisms in the regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. Physiology 24:17. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Brown EM, MacLeod RJ. 2001. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev 81:239. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Rourke KM, Coe S, Kohn SW, et al. 2010. Cloning, comparative sequence analysis and mRNA expression of calcium-transporting genes in horses. Gen Comp Endocrinol 167:6. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Dai LJ, et al. 2001. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates Mg2+ uptake into MDCT cells: modulation by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 280:F868. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Szabo A, Merke J, Beier E, et al. 1989. 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 inhibits parathyroid cell proliferation in experimental uremia. Kidney Int 35:1049. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Leone GW, et al. 2003. Molecular cloning and expression of equine calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide-I, and calcitonin gene-related peptide-II. Mol Cell Endocrinol 199:119. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Barton MH, Sharma P, LeRoy BE, et al. 2004. Hypercalcemia and high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration in a horse with multiple myeloma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:409. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Karcher LF, Le Net JL, Turner BF, et al. 1990. Pseudohyperparathyroidism in a mare associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cornell Vet 80:153. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Marr CM, Love S, Pirie HM. 1989. Clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings in a horse with splenic lymphosarcoma and pseudohyperparathyroidism. Equine Vet J 21:221. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Meuten DJ, Price SM, Seiler RM, et al. 1978. Gastric carcinoma with pseudohyperparathyroidism in a horse. Cornell Vet 68:179. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Refsal KR, Provencher-Bolliger AL, Graham PA, et al. 2001. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of calcium regulation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 31:1043. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Rosol TJ, Nagode LA, Robertson JT, et al. 1994. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy associated with ameloblastoma in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:1930. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Toribio RE, Kohn CW, Rourke KM, et al. 2007. Effects of hypercalcemia on serum concentrations of magnesium, potassium, and phosphate and urinary excretion of electrolytes in horses. Am J Vet Res 68:543. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Aguilera-Tejero E, Estepa JC, Lopez I, et al. 2000. Polycystic kidneys as a cause of chronic renal failure and secondary hypoparathyroidism in a horse. Equine Vet J 32:167. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Couetil LL, Sojka JE, Nachreiner RF. 1998. Primary hypoparathyroidism in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 12:45. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Durie I, van Loon G, Hesta M, et al. 2010. Hypocalcemia caused by primary hypoparathyroidism in a 3-month-old filly. J Vet Intern Med 24:439. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Frank N, Hawkins JF, Couetil LL, et al. 1998. Primary hyperparathyroidism with osteodystrophia fibrosa of the facial bones in a pony. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:84. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Peauroi JR, Fisher DJ, Mohr FC, et al. 1998. Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a functional parathyroid adenoma in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:1915. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Wong D, Sponseller B, Miles K, et al. 2004. Failure of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scanning to detect abnormal parathyroid tissue in a horse and a mule with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Vet Intern Med 18:589. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Ronen N, Van Heerden J, van Amstel SR. 1992. Clinical and biochemistry findings, and parathyroid hormone concentrations in three horses with secondary hyperparathyroidism. J S Afr Vet Assoc 63:134. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Elfers RS, Bayly WM, Brobst DF, et al. 1986. Alterations in calcium, phosphorus and C-terminal parathyroid hormone levels in equine acute renal disease. Cornell Vet 76:317. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Harrington DD. 1982. Acute vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) toxicosis in horses: case report and experimental studies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:867. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Harrington DD, Page EH. 1983. Acute vitamin D3 toxicosis in horses: case reports and experimental studies of the comparative toxicity of vitamins D2 and D3. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:1358. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Aguilera-Tejero E, Garfia B, Estepa JC, et al. 1998. Effects of exercise and EDTA administration on blood ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone in horses. Am J Vet Res 59:1605. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Aguilera-Tejero E, Estepa JC, Lopez I, et al. 2001. Plasma ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in horses after endurance rides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:488. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Beyer MJ, Freestone JF, Reimer JM, et al. 1997. Idiopathic hypocalcemia in foals. J Vet Intern Med 11:356. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Helman RG, Edwards WC. 1997. Clinical features of blister beetle poisoning in equids: 70 cases (1983-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:1018. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Dart AJ, Snyder JR, Spier SJ, et al. 1992. Ionized calcium concentration in horses with surgically managed gastrointestinal disease: 147 cases (1988-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:1244. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Delesalle C, Dewulf J, Lefebvre RA, et al. 2005. Use of plasma ionized calcium levels and Ca2+ substitution response patterns as prognostic parameters for ileus and survival in colic horses. Vet Q 27:157. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Garcia-Lopez JM, Provost PJ, Rush JE, et al. 2001. Prevalence and prognostic importance of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia in horses that have colic surgery. Am J Vet Res 62:7. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Magdesian KG, Hirsh DC, Jang SS, et al. 2002. Characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea: 28 cases (1993-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:67. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Carlson GP, Mansmann RA. 1974. Serum electrolyte and plasma protein alterations in horses used in endurance rides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:262. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Hudson NP, Church DB, Trevena J, et al. 1999. Primary hypoparathyroidism in two horses. Aust Vet J 77:504. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Baird JD. 1971. Lactation tetany (eclampsia) in a Shetland pony mare. Aust Vet J 47:402. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Schoeb TR, Panciera RJ. 1978. Blister beetle poisoning in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:75. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Sevinga M, Barkema HW, Hesselink JW. 2002. Serum calcium and magnesium concentrations and the use of a calcium-magnesium-borogluconate solution in the treatment of Friesian mares with retained placenta. Theriogenology 57:941. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Vandeplassche M, Spincemaille J, Bouters R. 1971. Aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment of retained placenta in the mare. Equine Vet J 3:144. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Hudson NP, Prince DP, Mayhew IG, et al. 2005. Investigation and management of a cluster of cases of equine retained fetal membranes in Highland ponies. Vet Rec 157:85. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Swartzman JA, Hintz HF, Schryver HF. 1978. Inhibition of calcium absorption in ponies fed diets containing oxalic acid. Am J Vet Res 39:1621. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Perkins G, Valberg SJ, Madigan JM, et al. 1998. Electrolyte disturbances in foals with severe rhabdomyolysis. J Vet Intern Med 12:173. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Tennant B, Lowe JE, Tasker JB. 1981. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in ponies following bilateral nephrectomy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 167:365. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Clarke CJ, Roeder PL, Dixon PM. 1996. Nasal obstruction caused by nutritional osteodystrophia fibrosa in a group of Ethiopian horses. Vet Rec 138:568. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Denny JE. 1985. Equine blood serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations in progressive nutritional hyperparathyroidism. J S Afr Vet Assoc 56:123. PUBMED Abstract
  72. McKenzie RA, Gartner RJ, Blaney BJ, et al. 1981. Control of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in grazing horses with calcium plus phosphorus supplementation. Aust Vet J 57:554. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Stewart J, Liyou O, Wilson G. 2010. Bighead in horses—not an ancient disease. Aust Equine Vet 29:55.
  74. Krook L, Lowe JE. 1964. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the horse. Pathol Vet 65:26.
  75. Argenzio RA, Lowe JE, Hintz HF, et al. 1974. Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in horses. J Nutr 104:18. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Estepa JC, Guilera-Tejero E, Zafra R, et al. 2006. An unusual case of generalized soft-tissue mineralization in a suckling foal. Vet Pathol 43:64. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Krook L, Wasserman RH, Shively JN, et al. 1975. Hypercalcemia and calcinosis in Florida horses: implication of the shrub, Cestrum diurnum, as the causative agent. Cornell Vet 65:26. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Krook L, Wasserman RH, McEntee K, et al. 1975. Cestrum diurnum poisoning in Florida cattle. Cornell Vet 65:557. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Muylle E, Oyaert W, de Roose P, et al. 1974. Hypercalcaemia and mineralisation of non-osseous tissues in horses due to vitamin-D toxicity. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 21:638. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Boland RF. 1988. Solanum malacoxylon: a toxic plant which affects animal calcium metabolism. Biomed Environ Sci 1:414. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Kasali OB, Krook L, Pond WG, et al. 1977. Cestrum diurnum intoxication in normal and hyperparathyroid pigs. Cornell Vet 67:190. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Worker NA, Carrillo BJ. 1967. “Enteque seco,” calcification and wasting in grazing animals in the Argentine. Nature 215:72. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Boland R, Skliar M, Curino A, et al. 2003. Vitamin D compounds in plants. Plant Sci 164:357.
  84. Grabner A, Kraft W, Essich G, et al. 1985. [Enzootic calcinosis in the horse]. Tierarztl Prax Suppl 1:84. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Braun U, Diener M, Hilbe M, et al. 2000. [Enzootic calcinosis in 16 cows from 6 dairy farms in Unterengadin]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 142:333. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Braun U, Diener M, Camenzind D, et al. 2000. Enzootic calcinosis in goats caused by golden oat grass (Trisetum flavescens). Vet Rec 146:161. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Suva LJ, Winslow GA, Wettenhall RE, et al. 1987. A parathyroid hormone-related protein implicated in malignant hypercalcemia: cloning and expression. Science 237:893. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Sellers RS, Toribio RE, Blomme EA. 2001. Idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease and macrophage expression of PTHrP in a miniature pony. J Comp Pathol 125:214. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Reijerkerk EP, Veldhuis Kroeze EJ, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. 2008. Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:654. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Peters M, Graf G, Pohlenz J. 2003. Idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease with encephalitis in a horse. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 50:108. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Tan JY, Valberg SJ, Sebastian MM, et al. 2010. Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses. Can Vet J 51:993. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Rodan GA. 2002. Bisphosphonates and primary hyperparathyroidism. J Bone Miner Res 17(Suppl 2):N150. PUBMED Abstract
  93. Bilezikian JP, Khan AA, Potts JT Jr, 2009. Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the third international workshop. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:335. PUBMED Abstract
  94. Pecherstorfer M, Brenner K, Zojer N. 2003. Current management strategies for hypercalcemia. Treat Endocrinol 2:273. PUBMED Abstract
  95. NRC. 2007. Minerals, pp 69-108. In National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses (eds), Nutrient requirements of horses. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  96. NRC. 2007. Nutrient requirements, feedstuff composition, and other tables, pp 293-310. In National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses (eds), Nutrient requirements of horses. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  97. Schryver HF, Hintz HF. 1987. Minerals, pp 393-405. In Robinson NE (ed), Current therapy in equine medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  98. NRC. 2007. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses. Nutrient requirements of horses, ed 6 rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Bovine Metabolic Disorders

Ketosis of Ruminants (Acetonemia)

  1. Taylor EJ. 2011. Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary, ed 32. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Holtenius P, Holtenius K. New aspects of ketone bodies in energy metabolism of dairy cows: a review. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 43:579, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  3. McArt JAA, Nydam DV, Oetzel GR. 2012. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 95:5056. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Baird GD, Heitzman RJ, Hibbitt KG, et al. Bovine ketosis: a review with recommendations for control and treatment, Part I. Br Vet J 130:214, 1974.
  5. Moe PW, Tyrrell HF, Flatt WP. 1971. Energetics of body tissue mobilization. J Dairy Sci 54:548. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Andersson L, Lundstrom K. Effect of feeding silage with high butyric acid content on ketone body formation and milk yield in postparturient dairy cows. Zentralbl Veterinarmed 32:15, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Lane MA, Baldwin RL, Jesse BW. 2002. Developmental changes in ketogenic enzyme during sheep rumen development. J Anim Sci 80:11538. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Bergman EN. 1971. Hyperketonemia-ketogenesis and ketone body metabolism. J Dairy Sci 54:936. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Hibbitt KG. 1979. Bovine ketosis and its prevention. Vet Rec 105:13. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Mills SE, Beitz DC, Young JW. 1986. Characterization of metabolic changes during a protocol for inducing lactation ketosis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 69:352. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Summer JM, McNamara JP. 2007. Expression of key genes controlling lipolysis in adipose tissue of Holstein dairy cattle during the dry period and lactation. J Dairy Sci 90:5237. PUBMED Abstract
  12. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, ed 7. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  13. Tveit B, Lingaas F, Svendsen MM, et al. 1992. Etiology of acetonemia in Norwegian cattle. 1. Effect of ketogenic silage, season, energy level and genetic factors. J Dairy Sci 75:2421. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Lingaas F, Tveit B. 1992. Etiology of acetonemia in Norwegian cattle. 2. Effect of butyric acid, valeric acid, and putrescine. J Dairy Sci 75:2433. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Marston HR, Allen SH, Smith RM. 1961. Primary metabolic defect supervening on vitamin B12 deficiency in the sheep. Nature 190:1085. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Blood DC, Radostits OM. 1989. Veterinary medicine, ed 7. Baillière Tindall, London, England.
  17. Rice DA, McMurray CH, Davidson JF. 1983. Ketosis in dairy cows caused by low levels of lincomycin in concentrate feed. Vet Rec 113:495. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Lean IJ, Baldwin RL, Troutt HF, et al. 1992. Impact of bovine somatotropin administration beginning at day 70 of lactation on serum metabolites, milk constituents, and production in cows previously exposed to exogenous somatotropin. Am J Vet Res 53:731. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Cole WJ, Eppard PJ, Boysen BG, et al. Response of dairy cows to high doses of a sustained-release bovine somatotropin administered during two lactations. 2. Health and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 75:111, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  20. LeBlanc SJ, Leslie KE, Duffield TF. 2005. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 88:159. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Shultz LH. 1971. Management and nutritional aspects of ketosis. J Dairy Sci 54:962. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Lacetera N, Franci O, Scalia D, et al. 2002. Effects of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate on functions of mononuclear cells obtained from ewes. Am J Vet Res 63:414. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Robertson A, Thin C. 1953. A study of starvation ketosis in the ruminant. Br J Nutr 7:181. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Kauppinen K. 1983. Correlation of whole blood concentrations of acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose and milk yield in dairy cows as studied under field conditions. Acta Vet Scand 24:337. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Baird GD. Primary ketosis in the high-producing dairy cow: clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention, and outlook. J Dairy Sci 65:1, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Whitaker DA, Kelly JM, Smith EJ. Subclinical ketosis and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in dairy cattle. Br Vet J 139:462, 1983. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Thin C, Robertson A. 1953. Biochemical aspects of ruminant ketosis. J Comp Pathol 63:184. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Emery RS, Burg N, Brown LD, et al. 1964. Detection, occurrence and prophylactic treatment of borderline ketosis with propylene glycol feeding. J Dairy Sci 47:1074.
  29. Andersson L. 1984. Concentrations of blood and milk ketone bodies, blood isopropanol and plasma glucose in dairy cows in relation to the degree of hyperketonaemia and clinical signs. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 31:683. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Duffield TF, Sandals D, Leslie KE, et al. 1998. Efficacy of monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 81:2866. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Carrier J, Stewart S, Godden S, et al. 2004. Evaluation and use of three cowside tests for detection of subclinical ketosis in early postpartum cows. J Dairy Sci 87:3725. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Geishauser T, Leslie K, Tenhag J, et al. 2000. Evaluation of eight cow-side ketone tests in milk for detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 83:296. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Reference deleted in pages. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Oetzel GR. 2003. Herd-based biological testing for metabolic disorders. Preconvention Seminar 7, American Association of Bovine Practitioners 36th Annual Conference, September, Columbus, OH.
  35. Manston R, Rowlands GJ, Little W, et al. 1981. Variability of the blood composition of dairy cows in relation to time of day. J Agric Sci (Camb) 96:593.
  36. Andersson L, Lundstrom K. 1984. Milk and ketone bodies, blood isopropanol and plasma glucose in dairy cows: methodological studies and diurnal variations. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 31:340. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Iwersen M, Falkenberg U, Voitsberger R, et al. 2008. Evaluation of an electronic cowside test to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 92:2618. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Stokol T, Nydam DV. 2006. Effect of hemolysis on nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in bovine blood. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:466. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Garry FB, Fettman MJ, Curtis CR, et al. 1994. Serum bile acid concentrations in dairy cows with hepatic lipidosis. J Vet Intern Med 8:432. PUBMED Abstract
  40. West HJ. 1990. Effect on liver function of acetonaemia and the fat cow syndrome cattle. Res Vet Sci 48:221. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Bobe G, Young JW, Beitz DC. 2004. Invited review: pathology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 87:3105. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Herdt TH. 2000. Ruminant adaptation to negative energy balance: influences on the etiology of ketosis and fatty liver. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 16:215. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Kaske M, Kraeft S, Herzog K, et al. 2004. Pancreatic insulin response and tissue responsiveness to insulin in dry cows, lactating cows and cows suffering from fatty liver and ketosis. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, June 9-13, Minneapolis, MN.
  44. Chilliard Y, Delavaud C, Bonnet M. 2005. Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism. Domest Anim Endocrinol 29:3. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Vernon RG. 2005. Lipid metabolism during lactation: a review of adipose tissue-liver interactions and the development of fatty liver. J Dairy Res 72:460. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Herdt TH. 1988. Fuel homeostasis in the ruminant. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 4:216. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Baxter CF, Kleiber M, Black AL. 1955. Glucose metabolism in the lactating dairy cow. Biochim Biophys Acta 17:354. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Dohoo IR, Martin SW. 1984. Subclinical ketosis: prevalence and associations with production and disease. Can J Comp Med 48:1. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Kauppinen K. 1983. Prevalence of bovine ketosis in relation to number and stage of lactation. Acta Vet Scand 24:349. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Grohn Y, Thompson JR, Bruss ML. 1984. Epidemiology and genetic basis of ketosis in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Prev Vet Med 3:65.
  51. Henricson B, Jonsson G, Pehrson B. 1977. “Lipid pattern,” glucose concentration and ketone body level in the blood of cattle. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 24:89. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Bendixen PH, Vilson B, Ekesbo I, et al. 1987. Disease frequencies in dairy cows in Sweden. IV. Ketosis. Prev Vet Med 5:99.
  53. Duffield T. 2005. Impact of subclinical ketosis on health and production of lactating dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, June 1-4, Baltimore, MD.
  54. Dohoo IR, Martin SW. 1984. Disease, production and culling in Holstein-Friesian cows. III. Disease and production as determinants of disease. Prev Vet Med 2:671.
  55. Andersson L, Emanuelson U. 1985. An epidemiological study of hyperketonaemia in Swedish dairy cows: determinants and the relation to fertility. Prev Vet Med 3:449.
  56. Markusfeld O, Nahari N, Adler H. 1984. Evaluation of a routine testing for ketonuria and aciduria in the detection of sub and clinical ketosis associated with overfeeding in dairy cattle. Bovine Pract 19:219.
  57. Bines JA, Morant SV. 1983. The effect of body condition on metabolic changes associated with intake of food by the cow. Br J Nutr 50:81. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Kung Jr L, Huber JT. 1983. Performance of high-producing cows in early lactation fed protein of varying amounts, sources and degradability. J Dairy Sci 66:227. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Riemann HP, Larssen RB, Simensen E. 1985. Ketosis in Norwegian dairy herds; some epidemiological associations. Acta Vet Scand 26:482. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Andersson L, Lundstrom K. 1984. Effect of energy balance on plasma glucose and ketone bodies in blood and milk and influence of hyperketonaemia on milk production of postparturient dairy cows. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 31:539. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Cote JF, Curtis RA, McSherry BJ, et al. 1969. Bovine ketosis: frequency of clinical signs, complications and alterations in blood ketones, glucose and free fatty acids. Can Vet J 10:179. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Kauppinen K. 1984. Annual milk yield and reproductive performance of ketotic and nonketotic dairy cows. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 31:694. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Dohoo IR, Martin SW. 1984. Disease, production and culling in Holstein-Friesian cows. IV. Effects of disease on production. Prev Vet Med 2:755.
  64. Simianer H, Solbu H, Schaeffer LR. 1991. Estimated genetic correlations between disease and yield traits in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 74:4358. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Dohoo IR, Martin SW. 1984. Disease, production and culling in Holstein-Friesian cows. V. Survivorship. Prev Vet Med 2:771.
  66. Gordon JL, LeBlanc SJ, Duffield TF. 2013. Ketosis treatment in lactating dairy cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 29:433. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Herdt TH, Emery RS. 1992. Therapy of diseases of ruminant intermediary metabolism. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 8:91. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Kaske M, Rehage J. 2004. Medical management of ketosis and fatty liver. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, June, Minneapolis, MN.
  69. Wagner SA, Schimek DF. 2010. Evaluation of the effect of bolus administration of 50% dextrose solution on measures of electrolyte and energy balance in postpartum dairy cows. Am J Vet Res 71:1074. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Kronfeld DS. 1980. Metabolic disorders. In Amstutz HE (ed), Bovine medicine and surgery, vol. I, ed 2. American Veterinary Publications, Santa Barbara, CA.
  71. Kristensen NB, Raun BML. 2007. Ruminal and intermediary metabolism of propylene glycol in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 90:4707. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Nielsen NI, Ingvartsen KL. 2004. Propylene glycol for dairy cows. A review of the metabolism of propylene glycol and its effects on physiological parameters, feed intake, milk production and risk of ketosis. Anim Feed Sci Technol 5:191.
  73. Hoedemaker M, Prange D, Zerbe H, et al. 2004. Peripartal propylene glycol supplementation and metabolism, animal health, fertility and production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 87:2136. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Goff JP, Horst RL. 2001. Oral glycerol as an aid in the treatment of ketosis/fatty liver complex (abstract). J Dairy Sci 84(Suppl 1):153.
  75. DeFrain JM, Hippen AR, Kalscheur KF, et al. 2004. Feeding glycerol to transition dairy cows: effects on blood metabolites and lactation performance. J Dairy Sci 87:4195. PUBMED Abstract
  76. McArt JAA, Nydam DV, Opsina PA, et al. 2011. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis. J Dairy Sci 94:6011. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Andersson L, Olsson T. 1984. The effect of two glucocorticoids on plasma glucose and milk production in healthy cows and the therapeutic effect in ketosis. Nord Vet Med 36:13. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Foster LA. 1988. Clinical ketosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 4:253. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Heitzman RJ, Walker MS. 1973. The antiketogenic action of an anabolic steroid administered to ketotic cows. Res Vet Sci 15:70. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Hayirli A, Bertics SJ, Grummer RR. 2002. Effects of slow-release insulin on production, liver triglyceride, and metabolic profiles of Holsteins in early lactation. J Dairy Sci 85:2180. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Hove K. 1978. Insulin secretion in lactating cows: responses to glucose infused intravenously in normal, ketonemic, and starved animals. J Dairy Sci 61:1407. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Andersen JB, Mashek DG, Larsen T, et al. 2002. Effects of hyperinsulinaemia under euglycaemic condition on liver fat metabolism in dairy cows in early and mid-lactation. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 49:65. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Bobe G, Ametaj BN, Young JW, et al. 2003. Effects of exogenous glucagons on lipids in lipoproteins and liver of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 86:2895. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Bach SJ, Hibbitt KG. 1960. The therapeutic use of cysteamine in bovine ketosis. Vet Rec 72:797.
  85. Lewis EF, Price EK. 1957. The use of choline chloride as a lipotrophic agent in the treatment of bovine liver dysfunction. Br Vet J 113:242.
  86. D-L-Methionine powder (package insert). Butler, Columbus, OH.
  87. Zom RLG, van Baal J, Goselink RMA, et al. 2011. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 94:4016. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Lima FS, Sa Filho MF, Greco LF, et al. 2012. Effects of feeding rumen-protected choline on incidence of diseases and reproduction of dairy cows. Vet J 193:140. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Croom WJ, Rakes AH, Linnerud AC, et al. 1981. Vitamin B12 administration for milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows fed a low-fiber diet. J Dairy Sci 64:1555. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Rollin E, Berghaus RD, Rapnicki P, et al. 2009. The effect of injectable butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum serum β-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 93:978. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Bryan MA, Socha MT, Tomlinson DJ. 2004. Supplementing intensively grazed late-gestation dairy cattle with chromium. J Dairy Sci 87:4269. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Smith KL, Waldron MR, Ruzzi LC, et al. 2008. Metabolism of dairy cows as affected by prepartum dietary carbohydrate source and supplementation with chromium throughout peripartum period. J Dairy Sci 91:2011.
  93. Kronfeld DS, Raggi F. 1964. Nicotinamide coenzyme concentrations in mammary biopsy samples from ketotic cows. Biochem J 90:219. PUBMED Abstract
  94. Dufva GS, Bartley EE, Dayton AD, et al. 1983. Effect of niacin supplementation on milk production and ketosis of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 66:2329. PUBMED Abstract
  95. Gorganov KH, Gabrovski P, Zhelyazkov S, et al. 1984. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of monensin and nicotinic acid in cows with subclinical ketosis (abstract). Vet Nauki 21:43. PUBMED Abstract
  96. Ruegsegger GJ, Shultz LH. 1986. Use of a combination of propylene glycol and niacin for subclinical ketosis. J Dairy Sci 69:1411. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Morey SD, Mamedova LK, Anderson DE, et al. 2011. Effects of encapsulated niacin on metabolism and production. J Dairy Sci 94:5090. PUBMED Abstract
  98. Yuan K, Shaver RD, Bertics SJ, et al. 2012. Effect of rumen-protected niacin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 95:2673. PUBMED Abstract
  99. Rosendo O, Staples CR, McDowell LR, et al. 2004. Effects of biotin supplementation on peripartum performance and metabolites of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 87:2535. PUBMED Abstract
  100. Vickers LA, Weary DM, Veira DM, et al. 2013. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows. J Anim Sci 91:886. PUBMED Abstract
  101. Grummer RR, Carroll DJ. 1991. Effects of dietary fat on metabolic disorders and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. J Anim Sci 69:3838. PUBMED Abstract
  102. Pickett MM, Piepenbrink MS, Overton TR. 2003. Effects of propylene glycol or fat drench on plasma metabolites, liver composition, and production of dairy cows during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci 86:2113. PUBMED Abstract
  103. Wood GM, Boettcher PJ, Kelton DF, et al. 2004. Phenotypic and genetic influences on test-day measures of acetone concentration in milk. J Dairy Sci 87:1108. PUBMED Abstract
  104. Larsen T, Nielsen NI. 2005. Fluorometric determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate in milk and blood plasma. J Dairy Sci 88:2004. PUBMED Abstract
  105. Nielsen NI, Friggens NC, Chagunda MGG, et al. 2005. Predicting risk of ketosis in dairy cows using in-line measurements of beta-hydroxybutyrate: a biological model. J Dairy Sci 88:2441. PUBMED Abstract

Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus

  1. Cox VS. 1998. Nonsystemic causes of the downer cow syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 4:413. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Gaynor PJ, Mueller FJ, Miller JK, et al. 1989. Parturient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows fed alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation to anion ratios. J Dairy Sci 72:2525. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Phillippo M, Reid GW, Nevison IM. 1994. Parturient hypocalcaemia in dairy cows: effects of dietary acidity on plasma minerals and calciotrophic hormones. Res Vet Sci 56:303. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Goff JP, Horst RL, Mueller FJ, et al. 1991. Addition of chloride to a prepartal diet high in cations increases 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D response to hypocalcemia preventing milk fever. J Dairy Sci 74:3863. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Goff JP. 2008. The monitoring, prevention, and treatment of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Vet J 176:50. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Stewart PA. 1983. Modern quantitative acid-base chemistry. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 61:1444. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Beede DK, Pilbeam TE, Puffenbarger SM, et al. 2001. Peripartum responses of Holstein cows and heifers fed graded concentrations of calcium (calcium carbonate) and anion (chloride) three weeks before calving. J. Dairy Sci 84:83.
  8. Goff JP, Horst RL. 2012. Comparison of low vs. high calcium “anionic” diets for prevention of hypocalcemia and milk fever (abstract). J Dairy Sci 95(Suppl 1).
  9. Jardon P. 1995. Using urine pH to monitor anionic salt programs. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 17:860.
  10. Goff JP, Brummer EC, Henning SJ, et al. 2007. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield. J Dairy Sci 90:5159. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Thomas ED, Sniffen CJ, Majewski CJ, et al. 1998. Reed canarygrass response to nitrogen and chloride fertilization. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY.
  12. Barton BA, Jorgensen NA, DeLuca HF. 1987. Impact of prepartum dietary phosphorus intake on calcium homeostasis at parturition. J Dairy Sci 70:1186. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Kichura TS, Horst RL, Beitz DC, et al. 1982. Relationships between prepartal dietary calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and parturient paresis in dairy cows. J Nutr 112:480. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Jorgensen NA. 1974. Combating milk fever, J Dairy Sci 57(8):933-944. PUBMED Abstract
  15. National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
  16. Thilsing-Hansen T, Jorgensen RJ, Enemark JM, et al. 2003. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving. Acta Vet Scand 97(Suppl):87. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Littledike ET, Horst RL. 1982. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 65:749. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Sachs M, Bar A, Cohen R, et al. 1977. Use of 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in the prevention of bovine parturient paresis. Am J Vet Res 38:2039. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Goff JP, Horst RL. 1990. Effect of subcutaneously released 24F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on incidence of parturient paresis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 73:406. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Rude RK. 1998. Magnesium deficiency: a cause of heterogeneous disease in humans. J Bone Miner Res 13:749. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Littledike ET, Stuedemann JA, Wilkinson SR, et al. 1983. Grass tetany syndrome. In Fontenot J (ed), Role of magnesium in animal nutrition. Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
  22. Lean IJ, DeGaris PJ, McNeil DM, et al. 2006. Hypocalcemia in dairy cows: meta-analysis and dietary cation anion difference theory revisited. J Dairy Sci 89:669. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Goff JP, Horst RL. 1993. Oral administration of calcium salts for treatment of hypocalcemia in cattle. J Dairy Sci 76:101. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Greene LW, Fontenot JP, Webb KE Jr. 1983. Site of magnesium and other macromineral absorption in steers fed high levels of potassium. J Anim Sci 57:503. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Martens H, Schweigel M. 2000. Pathophysiology of grass tetany and other hypomagnesemias. Implications for clinical management. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 16:339. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Greene LW, Schelling GT, Byers FM. 1986. Effects of dietary monensin and potassium on apparent absorption of magnesium and other macroelements in sheep. J Anim Sci 63:1960. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Puls R. 1994. Mineral levels in animal health: diagnostic data, ed 2. Sherpa International Press, Clearbrook, BC, Canada.
  28. Ram L, Schonewille JT, Martens H, et al. 1998. Magnesium absorption by wethers fed potassium bicarbonate in combination with different dietary magnesium concentrations. J Dairy Sci 81:2485. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Wright RD, Blair-West JR, Nelson JF, et al. 1984. Evaluation of the biological properties of parathyroid hormone and analogues in a vascularly isolated parotid gland-based assay. J Endocrinol 102:375. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Cheng Y, Goff JP, Horst RL. 1998. Restoring normal blood phosphorus concentrations in hypophosphatemic cattle with sodium phosphate. Vet Med 4(April):383.
  31. Wu Z, Satter LD, Blohowiak AJ, et al. 2001. Milk production, estimated phosphorus excretion, and bone characteristics of dairy cows fed different amounts of phosphorus for two or three years. J Dairy Sci 84:1738. PUBMED Abstract

Hypokalemia Syndrome in Cattle

  1. Sweeney RW. 1999. Treatment of potassium balance disorders. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 15:609. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Sielman ES, Sweeney RW, Whitlock RH, et al. 1997. Hypokalemia syndrome in dairy cows: 10 cases (1992-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:240. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Sattler N, Fecteau G, Girard C, et al. 1998. Description of 14 cases of bovine hypokalaemia syndrome. Vet Rec 143:503. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Peek SF, Divers TJ, Guard C, et al. 2000. Hypokalemia, muscle weakness and recumbency in dairy cattle. Vet Ther 1:235. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Johns IC, Whitlock RH, Sweeney RW. 2004. Hypokalaemia as a cause of recumbency in an adult dairy cow. Aust Vet J 82:413. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Lindeman RD. 1976. Hypokalemia: causes, consequences and correction. Am J Med Sci 272:5. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Brobst D. 1986. Review of the pathophysiology of alterations in potassium homeostasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:1019. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Dow SW, LeCouteur RA, Fettman MJ, et al. 1987. Potassium depletion in cats: hypokalemic polymyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:1563. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Vita G, Bartolone S, Santoro M, et al. 1987. Hypokalemic myopathy in pseudohyperaldosteronism induced by fluoroprednisolone-containing spray. Clin Neuropathol 6:80. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Johnson PJ, Goetz TE, Foreman JH, et al. 1991. Effect of whole-body potassium depletion on plasma, erythrocyte, and middle gluteal muscle potassium concentration of healthy, adult horses. Am J Vet Res 52:1676. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Sattler N, Fecteau G, Couture Y, et al. 2001. Évaluation des équilibres potassiques chez la vache laitière et étude de ses variations journalières et selon le stade de production. Can Vet J 42:107. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Neff AW, Connor AD, Bryan HS. 1960. Studies on 9α-fluoroprednisolone acetate, a new synthetic corticosteroid for the treatment of bovine ketosis. J Dairy Sci 43:553.
  13. Sattler N, Fecteau G, Pare J. 2002. Experimental reproduction of the bovine hypokalemia syndrome (abstract). J Vet Intern Med 16:337.
  14. Spital A, Sterns RH. 1995. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: review of a concept. Am J Nephrol 15:367. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Guyton AC, Hall JE. 2011. Transport of ions and molecules through the cell membrane. In Guyton AC, Hall JE (eds), Textbook of medical physiology, ed 12. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  16. Guyton AC, Hall JE. 1996. Membrane potentials and action potentials, pp 57-72. In Guyton AC, Hall JE (eds), Textbook of medical physiology, ed 9. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  17. Commerford PJ, Lloyd EA. 1984. Arrhythmias in patients with drug toxicity, electrolyte and endocrine disturbances. Med Clin North Am 68:1051. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Knochel JP. 1993. Mechanisms of rhabdomyolysis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 5:725. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Fleming SA, Hunt EL, Brownie C, et al. 1992. Fractional excretion of electrolytes in lactating dairy cows. Am J Vet Res 53:222. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Tadei A, Delhumeau A, Geslin PH, et al. 1974. Diagnostic des déplétions potassiques en milieu cardiologique. Intérêt de la mesure du potassium échangeable et du potassium érythrocytaire. Sem Hop Paris 50:2867. PUBMED Abstract

Bovine Somatotropin

  1. Tadei A, Delhumeau A, Geslin PH, et al. 1974. [Diagnosis of potassium depletion in a cardiology ward. Value of the measurement of exchangeable potassium and erythrocyte potassium]. Sem Hop 50:2867. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Guyton AC, Hall JE. 2006. Textbook of medical physiology. In Guyton AC, Hall JE (eds), Pituitary hormones and their control by the hypothalamus. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Hart IC, Bines JA, Morant SV. 1980. The secretion and metabolic clearance rates of growth hormone, insulin and prolactin in high- and low-yielding cattle at four stages of lactation. Life Sci 27:1839. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Barnes MA, Kazmer GW, Akers RM, et al. 1985. Influence of selection for milk yield on endogenous hormones and metabolites in Holstein heifers and cows. J Anim Sci 60:271. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Stricker PG, Grueter F. 1978. Action du lobe anterieur de l'hypophyse sur la montee laiteuse. C R Seances Soc Biol 99.
  6. Asimov GJ, Krouze NK. 1937. The lactogenic preparations from the anterior pituitary and the increase of milk yield in cows. J Dairy Sci 20:289.
  7. McGuffey RK, Basson RP, Spike TE. 1991. Lactation response and body composition of cows receiving somatotropin and three ratios of forage to concentrate. J Dairy Sci 74:3095. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Baile CA, Krestel-Rickert DH. 1985. Somatotropin. Feed Manage 36:26.
  9. Wood DC, Salsgiver WJ, Kasser TR, et al. 1989. Purification and characterization of pituitary bovine somatotropin. J Biol Chem 264:14741. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Wallis M. 1975. The molecular evolution of pituitary hormones. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 50:35. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Lucy MC, Hauser SD, Eppard PJ, et al. 1993. Variants of somatotropin in cattle: gene frequencies in major dairy breeds and associated milk production. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 10:325. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Miller MA, WFAS. 1993. Bovine somatotropins. In the 40th Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Centre for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD.
  13. Juskevich JC, Guyer CG. 1990. Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation. Science 249:875. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Etherton TD, Bauman DE. 1998. Biology of somatotropin in growth and lactation of domestic animals. Physiol Rev 78:745. PUBMED Abstract
  15. FaDAD. Code of Federal Regulations, 21 T., Editor: 58 CFR 59947,
  16. Hove K, Blom AK. 1973. Plasma insulin and growth hormone in dairy cows; diurnal variation and relation to food intake and plasma sugar and acetoacetate levels. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 73:289. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Breier BH, Vickers MH, Gallaher BW. 2000. Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Regulation of growth and metabolism during postnatal development. CAB International, New York, NY.
  18. Rerat M, Zbinden Y, Saner R, et al. 2005. In vitro embryo production: growth performance, feed efficiency, and hematological, metabolic, and endocrine status in calves. J Dairy Sci 88:2579. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Hammon HM, Zanker IA, Blum JW. 2000. Delayed colostrum feeding affects IGF-I and insulin plasma concentrations in neonatal calves. J Dairy Sci 83:85. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Plouzek CA, Trenkle A. 1991. Insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in plasma of intact and castrated male and female cattle at four ages. Domest Anim Endocrinol 8:73. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Hart IC, Bines JA, Morant SV, et al. 1978. Endocrine control of energy metabolism in the cow: comparison of the levels of hormones (prolactin, growth hormone, insulin and thyroxine) and metabolites in the plasma of high- and low-yielding cattle at various stages of lactation. J Endocrinol 77:333. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Andersen JB, Madsen TG, Larsen T, et al. 2005. The effects of dry period versus continuous lactation on metabolic status and performance in periparturient cows. J Dairy Sci 88:3530. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Shingu H, Hodate K, Kushibiki S, et al. 2002. Breed differences in growth hormone and insulin secretion between lactating Japanese Black cows (beef type) and Holstein cows (dairy type). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 132:493. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Kazmer GW, Barnes MA, Akers RM, et al. 1986. Effect of genetic selection for milk yield and increased milking frequency on plasma growth hormone and prolactin concentration in Holstein cows. J Anim Sci 63:1220. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Bauman DE, Currie WB. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J Dairy Sci 63:1514. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J, et al. 1994. Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. J Clin Invest 93:2438. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Mason TM, Goh T, Tchipashvili V, et al. 1999. Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats. Diabetes 48:524. PUBMED Abstract
  28. McShane TM, Schillo KK, Estienne MJ, et al. 1989. Effects of recombinant DNA-derived somatotropin and dietary energy intake on development of beef heifers: II. Concentrations of hormones and metabolites in blood sera. J Anim Sci 67:2237. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Preston RL, Bartle SJ, Kasser TR, et al. 1995. Comparative effectiveness of somatotropin and anabolic steroids in feedlot steers. J Anim Sci 73:1038. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Hall JB, Schillo KK, Fitzgerald BP, et al. 1994. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin and dietary energy intake on growth, secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicular development, and onset of puberty in beef heifers. J Anim Sci 72:709. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Elvinger F, Hansen PJ, Head HH, et al. 1991. Actions of bovine somatotropin on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes in cattle. J Dairy Sci 74:2145. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Burvenich C, Paape MJ, Hoeben D, et al. 1999. Modulation of the inflammatory reaction and neutrophil defense of the bovine lactating mammary gland by growth hormone. Domest Anim Endocrinol 17:149. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Hoeben D, Burvenich C, Eppard PJ, et al. 1999. Effect of bovine somatotropin on neutrophil functions and clinical symptoms during Streptococcus uberis mastitis. J Dairy Sci 82:1465. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Elsasser TH, Fayer R, Rumsey TS, et al. 1994. Recombinant bovine somatotropin blunts plasma tumor necrosis factor—alpha, cortisol, and thromboxane-B2 responses to endotoxin in vivo. Endocrinology 134:1082. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Hoeben D, Burvenich C, Eppard PJ, et al. 1999. Effect of bovine somatotropin on neutrophil functions and clinical symptoms during Streptococcus uberis mastitis. J Dairy Sci 82:1465. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Dohoo IR, Leslie K, DesCôteaux L, et al. 2003. A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin: 1. Methodology and effects on production. Can J Vet Res 67:241. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Bauman DE, Everett RW, Weiland WH, et al. 1999. Production responses to bovine somatotropin in northeast dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 82:2564. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Capuco AV, Wood DL, Baldwin R, et al. 2001. Mammary cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis during a bovine lactation: relation to milk production and effect of bST. J Dairy Sci 84:2177. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Yang J, Zhao B, Baracos VE, et al. 2005. Effects of bovine somatotropin on beta-casein mRNA levels in mammary tissue of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci 88:2806. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Sinowatz F, Schams D, Kolle S, et al. 2000. Cellular localisation of GH receptor in the bovine mammary gland during mammogenesis, lactation and involution. J Endocrinol 166:503. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Plath-Gabler A, Gabler C, Sinowatz F, et al. 2001. The expression of the IGF family and GH receptor in the bovine mammary gland. J Endocrinol 168:39. PUBMED Abstract
  42. McDowell G, Hart IC, Kirby AC. 1987. Local intra-arterial infusion of growth hormone into the mammary glands of sheep and goats: effects on milk yield and composition, plasma hormones and metabolites. Aust J Biol Sci 40:181. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Gertler A, Cohen N, Maoz A. 1983. Human growth hormone but not ovine or bovine growth hormones exhibits galactopoietic prolactin-like activity in organ culture from bovine lactating mammary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol 33:169. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Prosser CG, Mepham TB. 1988. Use of somatotropin in livestock production. Mechanism of action of bovine somatotropin in increasing milk secretion in dairy ruminants. Elsevier, Essex, England.
  45. Bauman DE. 1999. Bovine somatotropin and lactation: from basic science to commercial application. Domest Anim Endocrinol 17:101. PUBMED Abstract
  46. McDowell GH, Gooden JM, Leenanuruksa D, et al. 1987. Effects of exogenous growth hormone on milk production and nutrient uptake by muscle and mammary tissues of dairy cows in mid-lactation. Aust J Biol Sci 40:295. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Cittadini A, Ishiguro Y, Stromer H, et al. 1998. Insulin-like growth factor-1 but not growth hormone augments mammalian myocardial contractility by sensitizing the myofilament to Ca2+ through a wortmannin-sensitive pathway: studies in rat and ferret isolated muscles. Circ Res 83.
  48. Davis SR, Collier RJ, McNamara JP, et al. 1988. Effects of thyroxine and growth hormone treatment of dairy cows on mammary uptake of glucose, oxygen and other milk fat precursors. J Anim Sci 66:80. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Thomas JW, Erdman RA, Galton DM, et al. 1991. Responses by lactating cows in commercial dairy herds to recombinant bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 74:945. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Soderholm CG, Otterby DE, Linn JG, et al. 1988. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk production, body composition, and physiological parameters. J Dairy Sci 71:355. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Annexstad RJ, Otterby DE, Linn JG, et al. 1990. Somatotropin treatment for a second consecutive lactation. J Dairy Sci 73:2423. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Tarazon-Herrera MA, Huber JT, Santos JE, et al. 2000. Effects of bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition in Holstein cows in advanced lactation fed low- or high-energy diets. J Dairy Sci 83:430. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Eppard PJ, Bauman DE, Curtis CR, et al. 1987. Effect of 188-day treatment with somatotropin on health and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 70:582. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Kirby CJ, Thatcher WW, Collier RJ, et al. 1996. Effects of growth hormone and pregnancy on expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 genes in bovine uterus, ovary, and oviduct. Biol Reprod 55:966. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Lucy MC, Collier RJ, Kitchell ML, et al. 1993. Immunohistochemical and nucleic acid analysis of somatotropin receptor populations in the bovine ovary. Biol Reprod 48:1219. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Lucy MC, Thatcher WW, Collier RJ, et al. 1995. Effects of somatotropin on the conceptus, uterus, and ovary during maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Domest Anim Endocrinol 12:73. PUBMED Abstract
  57. De la Sota RL, Lucy MC, Staples CR, et al. 1993. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (sometribove) on ovarian function in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 76:1002. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Kirby CJ, Smith MF, Keisler DH, et al. 1997. Follicular function in lactating dairy cows treated with sustained-release bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 80:273. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Badinga L, Guzeloglu A, Thatcher WW. 2002. Bovine somatotropin attenuates phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin F2alpha production in bovine endometrial cells. J Dairy Sci 85:537. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Lucy MC, Byatt JC, Curran TL, et al. 1994. Placental lactogen and somatotropin: hormone binding to the corpus luteum and effects on the growth and functions of the ovary in heifers. Biol Reprod 50:1136. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Watson AJ, Hogan A, Hahnel A, et al. 1992. Expression of growth factor ligand and receptor genes in the preimplantation bovine embryo. Mol Reprod Dev 31:87. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Moreira F, Badinga L, Burnley C, et al. 2002. Bovine somatotropin increases embryonic development in superovulated cows and improves post-transfer pregnancy rates when given to lactating recipient cows. Theriogenology 57:1371 PUBMED Abstract
  63. Izadyar F, Van Tol HT, Hage WG, et al. 2000. Preimplantation bovine embryos express mRNA of growth hormone receptor and respond to growth hormone addition during in vitro development. Mol Reprod Dev 57:247. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Schneider A, Schwegler E, Montagner P, et al. 2012. Effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and postpartum resumption of ovulation. Animal 6:935. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Fike JH, Staples CR, Sollenberger LE, et al. 2002. Southeastern pasture-based dairy systems: housing, posilac, and supplemental silage effects on cow performance. J Dairy Sci 85:866. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Peel CJ, Sandles LD, Quelch KJ, et al. 1985. The effects of long-term administration of bovine growth hormone on the lactational performance of identical-twin dairy cows. Anim Prod 41:135.
  67. Cole WJ, Eppard PJ, Boysen BG, et al. 1992. Response of dairy cows to high doses of a sustained-release bovine somatotropin administered during two lactations. 2. Health and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 75:111. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Jenny BF, Grimes LW, Pardue FE, et al. 1992. Lactational response of Jersey cows to bovine somatotropin administered daily or in a sustained-release formulation. J Dairy Sci 75:3402. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Oldenbroek JK, Garssen GJ, Jonker LJ, et al. 1993. Effects of treatment of dairy cows with recombinant bovine somatotropin over three or four lactations. J Dairy Sci 76:453. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Rose MT, Weekes TEC, Rowlinson P. 2004. Individual variation in the milk yield response to bovine somatotropin in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 87:2024.
  71. West JW, Bondari K, Johnson JC. 1990. Effects of bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition, body weight, and condition score of Holstein and Jersey cows. J Dairy Sci 73:1062. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Eppard PJ, Bauman DE, McCutcheon SN. 1985. Effect of dose of bovine growth hormone on lactation of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 68:1109. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Marcek JM, Seaman WJ, Nappier JL. 1989. Effects of repeated high dose administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin in lactating dairy cows. Vet Hum Toxicol 31:455. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Cohick WS, Plaut K, Sechen SJ, et al. 1989. Temporal pattern of insulin-like growth factor-I response to exogenous bovine somatotropin in lactating cows. Domest Anim Endocrinol 6:263. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Remond B, Cisse M, Ollier A, et al. 1991. Slow release somatotropin in dairy heifers and cows fed two levels of energy concentrate. 1. Performance and body condition. J Dairy Sci 74:1370. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Tyrrell HF, Brown AC, Reynolds PJ, et al. 1988. Effect of bovine somatotropin on metabolism of lactating dairy cows: energy and nitrogen utilization as determined by respiration calorimetry. J Nutr 118:1024. PUBMED Abstract
  77. McBride BW, Burton JL, Gibson JP, et al. 1990. Use of recombinant bovine somatotropin for up to two consecutive lactations on dairy production traits. J Dairy Sci 73:3248. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Sullivan JL, Huber JT, DeNise SK, et al. 1992. Factors affecting response of cows to biweekly injections of sometribove. J Dairy Sci 75:756. PUBMED Abstract
  79. West JW, Mullinix BG, Johnson JC, et al. 1990. Effects of bovine somatotropin on dry matter intake, milk yield and body temperature in Holstein and Jersey cows during heat stress. J Dairy Sci 73:2896. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Michel A, McCutcheon SN, Mackenzie DD, et al. 1991. Metabolic responses to exogenous bovine somatotropin in Friesian cows of low or high genetic merit. Domest Anim Endocrinol 8:293. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Lean IJ, Baldwin RL, Troutt HF, et al. 1992. Impact of bovine somatotropin administration beginning at day 70 of lactation on serum metabolites, milk constituents, and production in cows previously exposed to exogenous somatotropin. Am J Vet Res 53:731. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Gibson JP, McBride BW, Burton JH, et al. 1992. Effect on production traits of bovine somatotropin for up to three consecutive lactations. J Dairy Sci 75:837. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Hansen WP, Otterby DE, Linn JG, et al. 1994. Multi-farm use of bovine somatotropin for two consecutive lactations and its effects on lactational performance, health, and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 77:94. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Lean IJ, Troutt HF, Bruss ML, et al. 1991. Postparturient metabolic and production responses in cows previously exposed to long-term treatment with somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 74:3429. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Eppard PJ, Hudson S, Cole WJ, et al. 1991. Response of dairy cows to high doses of a sustained-release bovine somatotropin administered during two lactations. 1. Production response. J Dairy Sci 74:3807. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Huber JT, Wu Z, Fontes C, et al. 1997. Administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin to dairy cows for four consecutive lactations. J Dairy Sci 80:2355. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Phipps RK. 1988. The use of prolonged release bovine somatotropin in milk production. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.
  88. Rodrigues PH, Santos MV, Fonseca LF, et al. 2006. An approach to identify dairy cows being responsive to recombinant bovine somatotropin. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 90:433. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Collier RJ, Annen-Dawson EL, Pezeshki A. 2012. Effects of continuous lactation and short dry periods on mammary function and animal health. Animal 6:403. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Fitzgerald AC, Annen-Dawson EL, Baumgard LH, et al. 2007. Evaluation of continuous lactation and increased milking frequency on milk production and mammary cell turnover in primiparous Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 90:5483. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Johnson HD, Li R, Manalu W, et al. 1991. Effects of somatotropin on milk yield and physiological responses during summer farm and hot laboratory conditions. J Dairy Sci 74:1250. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Nutrition SoDC, Nutrition CoA, Council NR. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, ed 7. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  93. McGuire MA, Dwyer DA, Bauman DE, et al. 1998. Insulin-like growth factors in plasma and afferent mammary lymph of lactating cows deprived of feed or treated with bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 81:950. PUBMED Abstract
  94. Radcliff RP, McCormack BL, Keisler DH, et al. 2006. Partial feed restriction decreases growth hormone receptor 1A mRNA expression in postpartum dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 89:611. PUBMED Abstract
  95. West JW. 1994. Interactions of energy and bovine somatotropin with heat stress. J Dairy Sci 77:2091. PUBMED Abstract
  96. Elvinger F, Natzke RP, Hansen PJ. 1992. Interactions of heat stress and bovine somatotropin affecting physiology and immunology of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci 75:449. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Yousef MK, Johnson HD. 1966. Calorigenesis of dairy cattle as influenced by thyroxine and environmental temperature. J Anim Sci 25:150. PUBMED Abstract
  98. Tarazon-Herrera M, Huber JT, Santos J, et al. 1999. Effects of bovine somatotropin and evaporative cooling plus shade on lactation performance of cows during summer heat stress. J Dairy Sci 82:2352. PUBMED Abstract
  99. Manalu W, Johnson HD, Li RZ, et al. 1991. Assessment of thermal status of somatotropin-injected lactating Holstein cows maintained under controlled-laboratory thermoneutral, hot and cold environments. J Nutr 121:2006. PUBMED Abstract
  100. Becker BA, Johnson HD, Li R, et al. 1990. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST). Int J Biometeorol 34:151. PUBMED Abstract
  101. Judge LJ, Bartlett PC, Lloyd JW, et al. 1999. Recombinant bovine somatotropin: association with reproductive performance in dairy cows. Theriogenology 52:481. PUBMED Abstract
  102. Dohoo IR, DesCoteaux L, Leslie K, et al. 2003. A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 2. Effects on animal health, reproductive performance, and culling. Can J Vet Res 67:252. PUBMED Abstract
  103. Santos JE, Huber JT, Theurer CB, et al. 2000. Effects of grain processing and bovine somatotropin on metabolism and ovarian activity of dairy cows during early lactation. J Dairy Sci 83:1004. PUBMED Abstract
  104. Sangsritavong S, Combs DK, Sartori R, et al. 2002. High feed intake increases liver blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17β in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 85:2831. PUBMED Abstract
  105. Wiltbank MC, Fricke PM, Sangsritavong S, et al. 2000. Mechanisms that prevent and produce double ovulations in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 83:2998. PUBMED Abstract
  106. Morbeck DE, Britt JH, McDaniel BT. 1991. Relationships among milk yield, metabolism, and reproductive performance of primiparous Holstein cows treated with somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 74:2153. PUBMED Abstract
  107. Rivera F, Narciso C, Oliveira R, et al. 2010. Effect of bovine somatotropin (500 mg) administered at ten-day intervals on ovulatory responses, expression of estrus, and fertility in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 93:1500. PUBMED Abstract
  108. Collier RJ, Byatt JC, Denham SC, et al. 2001. Effects of sustained release bovine somatotropin (sometribove) on animal health in commercial dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 84:1098. PUBMED Abstract
  109. Ruegg PL, Fabellar A, Hintz RL. 1998. Effect of the use of bovine somatotropin on culling practices in thirty-two dairy herds in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio. J Dairy Sci 81:1262. PUBMED Abstract
  110. Bartolome J, Hernandez J, Sheerin P, et al. 2003. Effect of pretreatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on conception rate of dairy cows with ovarian cysts subjected to synchronization of ovulation and timed insemination. Theriogenology 59:1991. PUBMED Abstract
  111. Bartolome J, Hernandez J, Landaeta A, et al. 2002. The effect of interval from day of administration of bovine somatotropin (bST) to synchronization of ovulation and timed-insemination on conception rate of dairy cows with and without ovarian cysts. Theriogenology 57:1293. PUBMED Abstract
  112. Santos JE, Juchem SO, Cerri RL, et al. 2004. Effect of bST and reproductive management on reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 87:868. PUBMED Abstract
  113. Moreira F, Orlandi C, Risco CA, et al. 2001. Effects of presynchronization and bovine somatotropin on pregnancy rates to a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 84:1646. PUBMED Abstract
  114. Kuzmina TI, Alm H, Denisenko V, et al. 2007. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on cytoplasmic maturation of bovine oocytes and their developmental competence in vitro. J Reprod Dev 53:309. PUBMED Abstract
  115. Bilby TR, Sozzi A, Lopez MM, et al. 2006. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses. J Dairy Sci 89:3360. PUBMED Abstract
  116. Stanisiewski EP, Krabill LF, Lauderdale JW. 1992. Milk yield, health, and reproduction of dairy cows given somatotropin (Somavubove) beginning early postpartum. J Dairy Sci 75:2149. PUBMED Abstract
  117. Flores R, Looper ML, Rorie RW, et al. 2007. Influence of body condition and bovine somatotropin on estrous behavior, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum somatotropin and plasma fatty acids in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows. J Anim Sci 85:1318. PUBMED Abstract
  118. Rossetti RC, Perdigao A, Mesquita FS, et al. 2011. Effects of flunixin meglumine, recombinant bovine somatotropin and/or human chorionic gonadotropin on pregnancy rates in Nelore cows. Theriogenology 76:751. PUBMED Abstract
  119. Jousan FD, de Castro e Paula LA, Block J, et al. 2007. Fertility of lactating dairy cows administered recombinant bovine somatotropin during heat stress. J Dairy Sci 90:341. PUBMED Abstract
  120. Block J, Rivera RM, Drost M, et al. 2005. Effects of bovine somatotropin and timed embryo transfer on pregnancy rates in non-lactating cattle. Vet Rec 156:175. PUBMED Abstract
  121. Cooke RF, Cappellozza BI, Reis MM, et al. 2012. Plasma progesterone concentration in beef heifers receiving exogenous glucose, insulin, or bovine somatotropin. J Anim Sci 90:3266. PUBMED Abstract
  122. Gonzalez-Fernandez R, Velarde JC, Perea-Ganchou F, et al. 2004. Production of transferable embryos in Brahman cows treated with bovine somatotropin. Reprod Fertil Dev 16:210.
  123. Willeberg P. 1993. Bovine somatotropin and clinical mastitis: epidemiological assessment of the welfare risk. Livestock Production Sci 36:55.
  124. White TC, Madsen KS, Hintz RL, et al. 1994. Clinical mastitis in cows treated with sometribove (recombinant bovine somatotropin) and its relationship to milk yield. J Dairy Sci 77:2249. PUBMED Abstract
  125. McClary DG, Green HB, Basson RP, et al. 1994. The effects of a sustained-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (somidobove) on udder health for a full lactation. J Dairy Sci 77:2261. PUBMED Abstract
  126. Dunklee JS, Freeman AE, Kelley DH. 1994. Comparison of Holsteins selected for high and average milk production. 2. Health and reproductive response to selection for milk. J Dairy Sci 77:3683. PUBMED Abstract
  127. van Dorp RT, Martin SW, Shoukri MM, et al. 1999. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia. Can J Vet Res 63:185. PUBMED Abstract
  128. Hoeben D, Burvenich C, Eppard PJ, et al. 1999. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk production and composition of cows with Streptococcus uberis mastitis. J Dairy Sci 82:1671. PUBMED Abstract
  129. Burvenich C, Vandeputte-Van Messom G, Roets E, et al 1988. Bovine growth-hormone on acute mastitis due to Escherichia coli. Ann De Med Vet 132:1465.
  130. Gulay MS, Liboni M, Hayen MJ, et al. 2007. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases. J Dairy Sci 90:5439. PUBMED Abstract
  131. Vicini JL, Hudson S, Cole WJ, et al. 1990. Effect of acute challenge with an extreme dose of somatotropin in a prolonged-release formulation on milk production and health of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 73:2093. PUBMED Abstract
  132. Bauman DE, Eppard PJ, DeGeeter MJ, et al. 1985. Responses of high-producing dairy cows to long-term treatment with pituitary somatotropin and recombinant somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 68:1352. PUBMED Abstract
  133. Burton JH, MacLeod GK, McBride BW, et al. 1990. Overall efficacy of chronically administered recombinant bovine somatotropin to lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 73:2157. PUBMED Abstract
  134. Sonenberg M, Free CA, Dellacha JM, et al. 1965. The metabolic effects in man of bovine growth hormone digested with trypsin. Metabolism 14:1189. PUBMED Abstract
  135. Souza SC, Frick GP, Wang X, et al. 1995. A single arginine residue determines species specificity of the human growth hormone receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:959. PUBMED Abstract
  136. Moore WV, Draper S, Hung CH. 1985. Species variation in the binding of hGH to hepatic membranes. Hormone Res 21:33. PUBMED Abstract
  137. Lesniak MA, Gorden P, Roth J. 1977. Reactivity of non-primate growth hormones and prolactins with human growth hormone receptors on cultured human lymphocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:838. PUBMED Abstract
  138. Collier RJ, Miller MA, Hildebrandt JR, et al. 1991. Factors affecting insulin-like growth factor-I concentration in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci 74:2905. PUBMED Abstract
  139. Sejrsen K, Pedersen LO, Vestergaard M, et al. 2001. Biological activity of bovine milk: contribution of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins. Livestock Prod Sci 70:79.
  140. Accorsi PA, Govoni N, Gaiani R, et al. 2005. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows. Reprod Domest Anim 40:217. PUBMED Abstract
  141. Grade “A” pasteurized milk ordinance—2011 revision. [WWW page]., accessed Dec 24, 2013.
  142. Groenewegen PP, McBride BW, Burton JH, et al. 1990. Bioactivity of milk from bST-treated cows. J Nutr 120:514. PUBMED Abstract
  143. Vega JR, Gibson CA, Skaar TC, et al. 1991. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and IGF binding proteins in serum and mammary secretions during the dry period and early lactation in dairy cows. J Anim Sci 69:2538. PUBMED Abstract
  144. Mielke H, Lochmann G, Simon I, et al. 1990. bSTH and IGF-I levels in blood and milk of black and white dairy cows before and after application of recombinantly derived bovine somatotropin. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 37:554. PUBMED Abstract
  145. Schams D, Matzke P, Hollwich W, et al. 1990. [Control of the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) by the determination of bST and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in blood and milk of cows]. Z Ernahrungswiss. 29:154. PUBMED Abstract
  146. Le Breton MH, Rochereau-Roulet S, Pinel G, et al. 2009. Elimination kinetic of recombinant somatotropin in bovine. Anal Chim Acta 637:121. PUBMED Abstract
  147. Le Breton MH, Rochereau-Roulet S, Chereau S, et al. 2010. Identification of cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin. J Agric Food Chem 58:729. PUBMED Abstract
  148. Le Breton MH, Beck-Henzelin A, Richoz-Payot J, et al. 2010. Detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin in milk and effect of industrial processes on its stability. Anal Chim Acta 672:45. PUBMED Abstract
  149. Hammond BG, Collier RJ, Miller MA, et al. 1990. Food safety and pharmacokinetic studies which support a zero (0) meat and milk withdrawal time for use of sometribove in dairy cows. Ann Rech Vet 21(Suppl 1):107. PUBMED Abstract
  150. Seaman WJ, Nappier JL, Olsen RF, et al. 1988. The lack of a growth-promoting effect of orally administered bovine somatotropin in the rat body-weight-gain bioassay. Fundam Appl Toxicol 10:287. PUBMED Abstract
  151. Norman HD, Powell RL, Wright JR, et al. 2003. Timeliness and effectiveness of progeny testing through artificial insemination. J Dairy Sci 86:1513. PUBMED Abstract
  152. Cassell BG, Jobst SM, McGilliard ML, et al. 2002. Evaluating sire selection practices using lifetime net income functions. J Dairy Sci 85:3492. PUBMED Abstract
  153. Vanderboom RJ, McCauley TC, Tappan R, et al. 1997. Bovine reproductive technology. In Youngquist RS (ed), Current therapy in large animal theriogenology. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  154. Bewley J, Palmer RW, Jackson-Smith DB, et al. 2001. Modeling milk production and labor efficiency in modernized Wisconsin dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 84:705. PUBMED Abstract
  155. Speicher JA, Tucker HA, Ashley RW, et al. 1994. Production responses of cows to recombinantly derived bovine somatotropin and to frequency of milking. J Dairy Sci 77:2509. PUBMED Abstract
  156. Tauer LW, Knoblauch WA. 1997. The empirical impact of bovine somatotropin on New York dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 80:1092. PUBMED Abstract
  157. Marion BW, Wills RL. 1990. A prospective assessment of the impacts of bovine somatotropin: a case study of Wisconsin. Am J Agric Econ 72:326.
  158. Macrina AL, Tozer PR, Kensinger RS. 2011. Induced lactation in pubertal heifers: efficacy, response to bovine somatotropin, and profitability. J Dairy Sci 94:1355. PUBMED Abstract
  159. Macrina AL, Kauf AC, Kensinger RS. 2011. Effect of bovine somatotropin administration during induction of lactation in 15-month-old heifers on production and health. J Dairy Sci 94:4566. PUBMED Abstract
  160. Magliaro AL, Kensinger RS, Ford SA, et al. 2004. Induced lactation in nonpregnant cows: profitability and response to bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci 87:3290. PUBMED Abstract
  161. Annen EL, Collier RJ, McGuire MA, et al. 2004. Effect of modified dry period lengths and bovine somatotropin on yield and composition of milk from dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 87:3746. PUBMED Abstract
  162. Collier RJ, Annen EL, Fitzgerald AC. 2004. Prospects for zero days dry. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 20:687. PUBMED Abstract
  163. Vieira MB, Bianchi I, Madeira EM, et al. 2010. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin and membrane integrity of bull spermatozoa. Reprod Domest Anim 45:1110. PUBMED Abstract
  164. Moallem U, Dahl GE, Duffey EK, et al. 2004. Bovine somatotropin and rumen-undegradable protein effects on skeletal growth in prepubertal dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 87:3881. PUBMED Abstract
  165. Schlegel ML, Bergen WG, Schroeder AL, et al. 2006. Use of bovine somatotropin for increased skeletal and lean tissue growth of Holstein steers. J Anim Sci 84:1176. PUBMED Abstract
  166. Capper JL, Cady RA. 2012. A comparison of the environmental impact of Jersey compared with Holstein milk for cheese production. J Dairy Sci 95:165. PUBMED Abstract
  167. Bauman DE. 1992. Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technology. J Dairy Sci 75:3432. PUBMED Abstract
  168. Sa Filho MF, Carvalho NA, Gimenes LU, et al. 2009. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on follicular population and on in vitro buffalo embryo production. Anim Reprod Sci 113:51. PUBMED Abstract
  169. Carrillo F, Hernandez-Ceron J, Orozco V, et al. 2007. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep. Anim Reprod Sci 102:31. PUBMED Abstract
  170. Requena R, Balasch S, Peris C, et al. 2010. Dose response of lactating dairy ewes during suckling and milking to bovine somatotropin. J Anim Sci 88:3136. PUBMED Abstract
  171. Disenhaus C, Jammes H, Hervieu J, et al. 1995. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on goat milk yield, composition and plasma metabolites. Small Ruminant Res 15:139.