Chapter 37 Diseases of the Hematopoietic and Hemolymphatic Systems

    Diseases Associated with Blood Loss or Hemostatic Dysfunction

  1. Schmall LM, Muir WW, Robertson JT. 1990. Haemodynamic effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock. Equine Vet J 22:273. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Bertone JJ, Shoemaker KE. 1992. Effects of hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on plasma constituents of conscious horses. Am J Vet Res 53:1844. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Kallfelz FA, Whitlock RH, Schultz RD. 1978. Survival of 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes in cross-transfused equine blood. Am J Vet Res 39:617. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Stormont CJ. 1982. Blood groups in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 181:1120. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Pascoe RR. 1979. Rupture of the utero-ovarian and middle uterine artery in the mare at or near parturition. Vet Rec 104:77. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Green SL, Specht TE, Dowling SC, et al. 1988. Hemoperitoneum caused by rupture of a juvenile granulose cell tumor in an equine neonate. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:1417. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Mongil CM, Drobatz KJ, Hendricks JC. 1995. Traumatic hemoperitoneum in 28 cases: a retrospective review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31:217. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Van Hoogmoed L, Snyder JR. 1996. Acute small intestinal injury associated with hematomas in the mesentery of four horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:1453. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Southwood LL, Schott HC, Henry CJ, et al. 2000. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in the horse: 35 cases. J Vet Intern Med 14:105. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Pusterla N, Fecteau ME, Madigan JE, et al. 2005. Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003). J Vet Intern Med 19:344. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Dechant JE, Nieto JE, Le Jeune SS. 2006. Hemoperitoneum in horses: 67 cases (1989-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:253. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Magdesian KG, Fielding L, Rhodes DM, et al. 2006. Changes in central venous pressure and blood lactate concentration in response to acute blood loss in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:1458. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Perkins G, Ainsworth DM, Yeager A. 1999. Hemothorax in 2 horses. J Vet Intern Med 13:375. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Schambourg MA, Laverty S, Mullim S, et al. 2003. Thoracic trauma in foals: post mortem findings. Equine Vet J 35:78. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Sweeney CR. 1991. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 7:93. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Meyer TS, Fedde MR, Gaughan EM, et al. 1998. Quantification of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage with bronchoalveolar lavage. Equine Vet J 30:284. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Takahashi T, Hiraga A, Ohmura H, et al. 2001. Frequency of and risk factors for epistaxis associated with exercise-induced pulmonary race starts (1992-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1462. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Vatistas NJ, Snyder JR, Carlson GP, et al. 1999. Cross-sectional study of gastric ulcers of the squamous mucosa in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet J S29:34. PUBMED Abstract
  19. McClure SR, Glickman LT, Glickman NW. 1999. Prevalence of gastric ulcers in show horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:1130. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Brosnahan MM, Paradis MR. 2003. Demographic and clinical characteristics of geriatric horses: 467 cases (1989-1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:93. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Nieto JE, Snyder JR, Beldomenico P, et al. 2004. Prevalence of gastric ulcers in endurance horses—a preliminary report. Vet J 167:33. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Dukti SA, Perkins S, Murphy J, et al. 2006. Prevalence of gastric squamous ulceration in horses with abdominal pain. Equine Vet J 38:347. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Le Jeune SS, Nieto JE, Dechant JE, et al. 2006. Prevalence of gastric ulcers in Thoroughbred broodmares in pasture. AAEP Proc 52:264.
  24. Bueno AC, Seahorn TL, Moore RM. 2000. Diagnosis and treatment of right dorsal colitis in horses. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 22:173.
  25. Cohen ND. 2002. Right dorsal colitis. Equine Vet Educ 14:212.
  26. Mosher DF. 1999. Disorders of blood coagulation, pp 999-1017. In Goldman L, Bennett JC (eds), Cecil textbook of medicine, ed 21. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  27. Weiss DJ, Rashid S. 1998. The sepsis-coagulant axis: a review. J Vet Intern Med 12:317. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Collen D, Lijner HR. 1991. Basic and clinical aspects of fibrinolysis and thrombolysis. Blood 78:3114. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Clouse LH, Camp PC. 1986. The regulation of hemostasis: the protein C system. N Engl J Med 314:1298. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Moore BR, Hinchcliff KW. 1994. Heparin: a review of its pharmacological therapeutic use in horses. J Vet Intern Med 48:26. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Collatos C, Barton MH, Prasse KW, et al. 1995. Intravascular and peritoneal coagulation and fibrinolysis in horses with acute gastrointestinal tract diseases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:465. PUBMED Abstract

Inherited Coagulation Disorders

  1. Turrentine MA, Sculley PW, Green EM, et al. 1986. Prekallikrein deficiency in a family of miniature horses. Am J Vet Res 47:2464. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Geor RJ, Jackson ML, Lewis KD, et al. 1990. Prekallikrein deficiency in a family of Belgian horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:741. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Revenko AS, Gao D, Crosby JR, et al. 2011. Selective depletion of plasma prekallikrein or coagulation factor XII inhibits thrombosis in mice without increased risk of bleeding. Blood 118:5302. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Bird JE, Smith PL, Wang X, et al. 2012. Effects of plasma kallikrein deficiency on haemostasis and thrombosis in mice: murine ortholog of the Fletcher trait. Thromb Haemost 107:1141. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Gentry PA, Crane S, Lotz F. 1975. Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) deficiency in cattle. Can Vet J 16:160. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Brush PJ, Anderson PH, Gunning RF. 1987. Identification of factor XI deficiency in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Britain. Vet Rec 121:14. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Kunieda M, Tsuji T, Abbasi AR, et al. 2005. An insertion mutation of the bovine F11 gene is responsible for factor XI deficiency in Japanese black cattle. Mamm Genome 15:383. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Marron BM, Robinson JL, Gentry PA, et al. 2004. Identification of a mutation associated with factor XI deficiency in Holstein cattle. Anim Genet 35:454. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Gurgul A, Rubis D, Slota E. 2009. Identification of carriers of the mutation causing coagulation factor XI deficiency in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Appl Genet 50:149. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Meydan H, Yildiz MA, Ozdil F, et al. 2009. Identification of factor XI deficiency in Holstein cattle in Turkey. Acta Vet Scand 51:149. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Gentry PA, Black WD. 1980. Prevalence and inheritance of factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) deficiency in cattle. J Dairy Sci 63:616. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Meydan H, Yildiz MA, Agerholm JS. 2010. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cattle reared in Turkey. Acta Vet Scand 52:52. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Watanabe D, Hirano T, Sugimoto Y, et al. 2006. Carrier rate of factor XI deficiency in stunted Japanese Black cattle. J Vet Med Sci 70:293. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Coomber BL, Galligan CL, Gentry PA. 1997. Comparison of in vitro function of neutrophils from cattle deficient in plasma factor XI activity and from normal animals. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 58:121. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Liptrap RM, Gentry PA, Ross ML, et al. 1995. Preliminary findings of altered follicular activity in Holstein cows with factor XI deficiency. Vet Res Commun 19:463. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Gentry PA, Ross ML. 1994. Coagulation factor XI deficiency in Holstein cattle: expression and distribution of factor XI activity. Can J Vet Res 58:242. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Henninger RW. 1988. Hemophilia A in two related Quarter Horse colts. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:91. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Moritomo Y, Shimojo K, Miyadera K, et al. 2008. Clinical and pathological aspects of hemophilia A in Japanese Brown cattle. J Vet Med Sci 70:293. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Healy PJ, Sewell CA, Exner T, et al. 1984. Haemophilia in Hereford cattle: factor VIII deficiency. Aust Vet J 61:132. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Khalaj M, Abassi AR, Shimojo K, et al. 2009. A missense mutation (p.Leu2153His) of the factor VIII gene causes cattle haemophilia A. Anim Genet 40:763. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Brooks M, Leith GS, Allen AK, et al. 1991. Bleeding disorder (von Willebrand disease) in a Quarter Horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 98:114. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Baker DC, Robbe SL, Jacobsen L, et al. 1999. Hereditary deficiency of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors in Rambouillet sheep. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 10:75. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Hinton M, Jones DR, Lewis IM, et al. 1977. A clotting disorder in an Arab colt foal. Equine Vet J 9:1. PUBMED Abstract

Thrombasthenia in Horses

  1. George JN, Caen JP, Nurden A. 1990. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: the spectrum of clinical disease. Blood 75:1383. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Boudreaux MK, Kvam K, Dillon AR, et al. 2001. Type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia in a Great Pyrenees dog. Vet Pathol 38:249.
  3. Sutherland RJ, Cambridge H, Bolton JR. 1989. Functional and morphological studies on blood platelets in a thrombasthenic horse. Aust Vet J 66:366. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Miura N, Senba H, Ogawa H, et al. 1987. A case of equine thrombasthenia. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 49:155. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Livesey L, Christopherson P, Hammod A, et al. 2005. Platelet dysfunction (Glazmann's thrombasthenia) in horses. J Vet Intern Med 19:917. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Macieira S, Rivard G, Champagne J, et al. 2007. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in an Oldenburg Filly. Vet Clin Pathol 36:204. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Sanz MG, Wills TB, Christopherson P, et al. 2011. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare. Vet Clin Pathol 40:48. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Macieira S, Lussier J, Bedard C. 2011. Characterization of the cDNA and genomic DNA sequence encoding for the platelet integrin alpha IIB and beta III in a horse with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Can J Vet Res 75:222. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Christopherson PW, Insalaco TA, Van Santen VL, et al. 2006. Characterization of the cDNA endogen αIIb and β3 in normal horses and two horses with Glanzmann Thrombasthenia. Vet Pathol 43:78. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Christopherson PW, van Santen VL, Livesey L, et al. 2007. A 10-base-pair deletion in the gene encoding platelet glycoprotein IIb associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 21:196. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Fry MM, Walker NJ, Blevins GM, et al. 2005. Novel platelet function defect in a Thoroughbred filly. J Vet Intern Med 19:359. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Norris JW, Pratt SM, Auh JH, et al. 2006. Investigation of a novel heritable bleeding diathesis of Thoroughbred horses and development of a screening assay. J Vet Intern Med 20:1450. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Norris JW, Pratt SM, Hunter JF, et al. 2007. Prevalence of reduced fibrinogen binding to platelets in a population of Thoroughbreds. Am J Vet Res 68:716. PUBMED Abstract

Acquired Hemostatic Disorders

  1. Rosenwasser LJ. 1999. The vasculitic syndromes, pp 1490-1493. In Goldman L, Bennett JC (eds), Cecil textbook of medicine, ed 21. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Morris DD. 1987. Cutaneous vasculitis in horses: 19 cases (1978-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:460. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Morris DD, Miller WH Jr, Goldschmidt MH, et al. 1983. Chronic necrotizing vasculitis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:579. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Werner LL, Gross TL, Hillidge CJ. 1984. Acute necrotizing vasculitis and thrombocytopenia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:87. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff K. 2006. Veterinary medicine, ed 10. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  6. Morris DD. 1995. The haemolymphatic system, pp 409-451. In Higgins AJ, Wright IM (eds), The equine manual. WB Saunders, London.
  7. Pusterla N, Watson JL, Affolter VK, et al. 2003. Purpura haemorrhagica in 53 horses. Vet Rec 153:118. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Logus DB, Barbet JL. 1999. Diseases characterized by ulceration, exudation and crusting of the distal extremities, pp 1922-1925. In Colahan PT (eds), Equine medicine and surgery, ed 5. Mosby, St Louis, MO.
  9. Moriello KA, Deboer DJ, Semrad SD. 1998. Vasculitis and purpura hemorrhagica. In Reed SM, Bayly WM (eds), Equine internal medicine. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. Kaese HJ, Valberg SJ, Hayden DW, et al. 2005. Infarctive purpura hemorrhagica in five horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1893. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Gorbalenya AE, Enjuanes L, Ziebuhr L, et al. 2006. Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res 117:17. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Bryans JT, Doll ER, Knappenberger RE. 1957. An outbreak of abortion caused by the equine arteritis virus. Cornell Vet 47:69. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Del Piero F. 2000. Equine viral arteritis. Vet Pathol 37:287. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Samper JC, Tibary A. 2006. Disease transmission in horses. Theriogenology 66:551. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Bryants JT, Doll ER, Crowe ME, et al. 1957. The blood picture and thermal reaction in experimental viral arteritis of horses. Cornell Vet 47:42. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Guthrie A, Howell PG, Hedges JF, et al. 2003. Lateral transmission of equine arteritis virus among Lipizzaner stallions in South Africa. Equine Vet J 35:596. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Powell DG. 2006. EVA outbreak in New Mexico. Equine Dis Quarterly 15:2.

Anaplasma phagocytophila Infection in Horses

  1. Gribble DH. 1969. Equine ehrlichiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:462. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, et al. 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and “HGE agent” as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:2145. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Dumler JS, Asanovich KM, Bakken JS, et al. 1995. Serologic cross-reactions among Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, and human granulocytic Ehrlichia. J Clin Microbiol 33:1098. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Madigan JE, Gribble D. 1987. Equine ehrlichiosis in northern California: 49 cases (1968-1982). J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:445. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Madigan JE, Barlough JE, Dumler JS, et al. 1996. Equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Connecticut caused by an agent resembling the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol 34:434. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Reubel GH, Kimsey RB, Barlough JE, et al. 1998. Experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi to horses through naturally infected ticks (Ixodes pacificus) from northern California. J Clin Microbiol 36:1231. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Vredevoe LK, Richter PJ, Madigan JE, et al. 1999. Association of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) with the spatial and temporal distribution of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in California. J Med Entomol 36:551. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Pusterla N, Chae JS, Kimsey RB, et al. 2002. Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in horses using experimentally infected ticks (Ixodes scapularis). J Vet Med B 49:484. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Ogden NH, Woldehiwet Z, Hart CA. 1998. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease. J Med Microbiol 47:475. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Lepidi H, Bunnell JE, Martin ME, et al. 2000. Comparative pathology, and immunohistology associated with clinical illness after Ehrlichia phagocytophila-group infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62:29. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Van Andel AE, Magnarelli LA, Heimer R, et al. 1998. Development and duration of antibody response against Ehrlichia equi in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:1910. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Pusterla N, Huder JB, Leutenegger CM, et al. 1999. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup in host animals and Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol 37:1329. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Madigan JE, Hietala S, Chalmers S, et al. 1990. Seroepidemiologic survey of antibodies to Ehrlichia equi in horses of northern California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:1962. PUBMED Abstract


  1. Gordon BJ, Latimer KS, Murray CM, et al. 1986. Evaluation of leukapheresis and thrombocytapheresis in the horse. Am J Vet Res 47:997. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Morris DD. 1992. Idiopathic thrombocytopenia, pp 507-510. In Robinson NE (ed), Current therapy in equine medicine, ed 3. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Searcy GP, Orr JP. 1981. Chronic granulocytic leukemia in a horse. Can Vet J 22:148. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Brumbaugh GW, Stitzel KA, Zinkl JG, et al. 1982. Myelomonocytic myeloproliferative disease in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:313. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Burkhardt E, Von Saldern F, Huskamp B. 1984. Monocytic leukemia in a horse. Vet Pathol 21:394. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Morris DD, Bloom JC, Roby KA, et al. 1984. Eosinophilic myeloproliferative disorder in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:993. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Cohen ND, Carter KG. 1991. Persistent thrombocytopenia in a case of equine infectious anemia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:750. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Reef VB, Dyson SS, Beech J. 1984. Lymphosarcoma and associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:313. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Sockett DC, Traub-Dargatz J, Weiser MG. 1987. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:308. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Buechner-Maxwell V, Scott MA, Godber L, et al. 1997. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia in a quarter horse foal. J Vet Intern Med 11:304. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Ramirez S, Gaunt SD, McClure JJ, et al. 1999. Detection and effects on platelet function of anti-platelet antibody in mule foals with experimentally induced neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Vet Intern Med 13:534. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Shuman M. 2006. Hemorrhagic disorders: abnormalities of platelets and vascular function, pp 997-987. In Golman L, Krevans J (eds), Cecil textbook of medicine, ed 22. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
  13. Morris DD, Whitlock RH. 1983. Relapsing idiopathic thrombocytopenia in a horse. Equine Vet J 15:73. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Jans HE, Armstrong J, Price GS. 1990. Therapy of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. J Vet Intern Med 4:4. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Nelson RW, Couto GC. 2003. Small animal internal medicine, ed 3. Mosby, St Louis, MO.
  16. Blanchette V, Imbach P, Andrew M, et al. 1994. Randomised trial of intravenous immunoglobulin G, intravenous anti-D and oral prednisone in childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Lancet 344:703. PUBMED Abstract

Disorders of Coagulation Factors

  1. Gando S, Kameue T, Nanzaki S, et al. 1996. Disseminated intravascular coagulation as a frequent complication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Thromb Haemost 75:224. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Morris DD, Beech J. 1983. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in six horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1067. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Vestweber JGE, Krukenberg SM, Spencer H. 1983. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a cow with coliform mastitis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 5:S185.
  4. Buntain B. 1980. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in a cow with left displaced abomasum, metritis, and mastitis. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 75:1023. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Morris DD, Vaala WE, Sartin E. 1982. Protein-losing enteropathy in a yearling filly with subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmune hemolytic disease. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 4:S542.
  6. Dolente BA, Wilkins PA, Boston RC. 2002. Clinicopathologic evidence of DIC in horses with acute colitis. J Am Vet Met Assoc 220:1034. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Roby KAW, Bloom JC, Becht JL. 1987. Postpartum hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:187. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Baxter GM. 1986. Equine laminitis caused by distal displacement of the distal phalanx: 12 cases (1976-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:326. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Weiss DJ, Trent AM, Johnston G. 1995. Prothrombotic events in prodromal stages of acute laminitis in horses. Am J Vet Res 56:986. PUBMED Abstract
  10. MacLachlan NJ, Divers TJ. 1982. Hemolytic anemia and fibrinoid change of renal vessels in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 181:716. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Dosquet C, Weill D, Wautier JL. 1995. Cytokines and thrombosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 25:513. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Morris DD. 1991. Endotoxemia in horses: a review of cellular and humoral mediators involved in its pathogenesis. J Vet Intern Med 5:167. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Couto CG. 1999. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs and cats. Vet Med 94:547.
  14. Triplett DA. 2000. Coagulation and bleeding disorders: review and update. Clin Chem 46:1260. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Silver D, Kapsch DN, Tsoi EK. 1983. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, thrombosis and hemorrhage. Ann Surg 198:301. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Moore JN, Mahaffey EA, Zboran M. 1987. Heparin-induced agglutination of erythrocytes in horses. Am J Vet Res 48:68. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Robinson NE. 2003. Current therapy in equine medicine, ed 5. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  18. Turner TA. 1996. Management of navicular disease in horses: an update. Mod Vet Pract 1:24.
  19. Vrins A, Carlson G, Feldman B. 1983. Warfarin: a review with emphasis on its use in the horse. Can Vet J 24:211. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Scott EA, Byars TD, Lamar AM. 1980. Warfarin anticoagulation in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 177:1146. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Rebhun WC, Tennant BC, Dill SG, et al. 1984. Vitamin K3-induced renal toxicosis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:1237. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Casper HH. 1982. Dicoumarol levels in sweet clover toxic to cattle. Annu Conv Vet Lab Diagn Proc 25:41.

Bovine Anaplasmosis

  1. Aubrey P, Geale DW. 2011. A review of bovine anaplasmosis. Transbound Emerg Dis 58:1. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Rar V, Golovljova I. 2010. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” bacteria: pathogenicity, biodiversity, and molecular genetic characteristics, a review. Infect Genet Evol 11:1842. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Chandrashekar R, Mainville CA, Beall MJ, et al. 2010. Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilium, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Am J Vet Res 71:1443. PUBMED Abstract
  4. de la Fuente J, Atkinson M, Hogg JT, et al. 2006. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma ovis strains from Bighorn Sheep in Montana. J Wildl Dis 42:381. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Bradway DS, Torioni de Echaide S, Knowles DP, et al. 2001. Sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test for detection of Anaplasma marginale persistently infected carriers. J Vet Diag Invest 13:77. PUBMED Abstract
  6. de la Fuente J, Ruybal P, Mtshali MS, et al. 2007. Analysis of world strains of Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein 1a repeat sequences. Vet Microl 119:382. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Brayton KA, Meeus PF, Barbet AF, et al. 2003. Simultaneous variation of the immunodominant outer membrane proteins MSP2 and MSP3 during Anaplasma marginale persistence in vivo. Infect Immun 71:6627. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Brown WC. 2012. Adaptive immunity to Anaplasma pathogens and immune dysregulation: implications for bacterial persistence. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 35:241. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Coetzee JF, Apley MD, Kocan KM, et al. 2005. Comparison of three oxytetracycline regimes for the treatment of persistent Anaplasma marginale infections in beef cattle. Vet Parasitol 127:61. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Coetzee JF, Apley MD, Kocan KM. 2006. Comparison of the efficacy of enrofloxacin, imidocarb, and oxytetracycline for the clearance of persistent Anaplasma marginale infections in cattle. Vet Ther 7:347. PUBMED Abstract


  1. Wright IG. 1981. Biochemical characteristics of Babesia and physicochemical reactions in the host. In Ristic M, Kreier JP (eds), Babesiosis. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  2. Francis S. 1966. Resistance of zebu and other cattle to tick infestation and babesiosis with special reference to Australia: a historical review. Br Vet J 122:301.
  3. Mahoney DF. 1983. Studies on the protection of cattle against Babesia bovis infection. In Dunsmore JD (ed), Tropical parasitoses and parasitic zoonoses. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Perth, Australia.
  4. Levy MG, Clabaugh G, Ristic M. 1982. Age resistance in bovine babesiosis: role of blood factors in resistance to Babesia bovis. Infect Immun 37:1127. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Mahoney DF, Wright IG, Mirre GB. 1973. Bovine babesiosis: the persistence of immunity to Babesia argentina and B. bigemina in calves (Bos taurus) after naturally acquired infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 67:197. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Robertson A. 1976. Handbook on animal diseases in the tropics, ed 3. British Veterinary Association, London, England.
  7. Kuttler KL. 1984. Babesiosis. In Trevono GS, Hyde JL (eds), Foreign animal diseases, U.S. Animal Health Association, Richmond, VA.
  8. Weright IG. 1972. Studies on the pathogenesis of Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina infections in splenectomized calves. Z Parasitenkd 39:85. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Kuttler KL, Adams LG, Todorovic RA. 1977. Comparisons of the complement-fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody reactions in the detection of bovine babesiosis. Am J Vet Res 38:153. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Madruga CR, Aycardi E, Kessler RH, et al. 1984. Antibody levels anti-Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in calves of Nelore and Ibage breeds and Nelore crosses. Pesq Aqropec Gras Brasilia 19:1163.
  11. Anonymous: Microtiter technique for the complement-fixation test for anaplasmosis, Beltsville, 1974, USDA.
  12. Mahoney DF. 1967. Bovine babesiosis: preparation and assessment of complement fixing antigens. Exp Parasitol 20:232-241. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Todorovic RA, Adams LG. 1971. Serodiagnosis of babesiosis. World Vet Cong Proc 19:1114.
  14. Zuckerman A, Ristic M. 1968. Blood parasite antigens and antibodies. In Weinman D, Ristic M (eds), Infectious blood diseases of man and animals. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  15. Todorovic RA, Kuttler KL. 1974. A babesiosis card agglutination test. Am J Vet Res 35:1347. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Barry DN, Rodwell BJ, Timms P, et al. 1982. A microplate enzyme immunoassay for detecting and measuring antibodies to Babesia bovis in cattle serum. Aust Vet J 59:136. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Figueroa JV, Buening GM. 1994. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 75:75. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Kuttler KL. 1981. Chemotherapy of babesiosis: a review. In Ristic M, Dreier JP (eds), Babesiosis. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  19. Kuttler KL, Graham OH, Trevino JL. 1975. The effect of imidocarb treatment on Babesia in the bovine and the tick (Boophilus microplus). Res Vet Sci 18:198. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Todorovic RA, Vizcaino OG, Gonzales ED, et al. 1974. Chemoprophylaxis (imidocarb) against Babesia bigeminia and Babesia argentina infections. Am J Vet Res 39:1153. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Todorovic RA, Gonzales ED, Adams LG. 1975. Babesia bigemina, Babesia argentina, Anaplasma marginale: coinfectious immunity in bovines. Exp Parasitol 37:179. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Kuttler KL, Johnson LW. 1980. Immunization of cattle with a Babesia bigemina antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Am J Vet Res 41:536. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Montenegro-James S, Ristic M, Benitez MT, et al. 1985. Heterologous strain immunity in bovine babesiosis using a culture-derived soluble Babesia bovis immunogen. Vet Parasitol 19L:321-337. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Wright IG, Mirre BG, Rode-Gramanis K, et al. 1985. Protective vaccination against virulent Babesia bovis with a low-molecular-weight antigen. Infect Immun 48:109. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Mehlhorn H, Schein E. 1998. Redescription of Babesia equi Lavern, 1901 as Theileria equi. Parasitol Res 84:467. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Frerichs MW, Allen PC, Holbrook AA. 1973. Equine piroplasmosis (Babesia equi): therapeutic trials of imidocarb dihydrochloride in horses and donkeys. Vet Rec 93:73. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Kuttler KL, Zaugg JL, Gipson CA. 1987. Imidocarb and parvaquone in the treatment of piroplasmosis (Babesia equi) in equids. Am J Vet Res 48:1613. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Zaugg J. 1993. Buparvaquone in the treatment of equine piroplasmosis (Babesia equi) of European origin. Equine Practice 15:19.

Haemobartonellosis (Eperythrozoonosis) and Theileriasis

  1. Smith JA, Thrall MA, Smith JL, et al. 1989. Eperythrozoon wenyoni infection in dairy heifers. ACVIM Proc 7.
  2. Jain NC. 1986. Schalm's veterinary hematology, ed 4. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Chae J, Lee J, Kwon O, et al. 1998. Nucleotide sequence heterogeneity in the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene variable (V4) region among and within geographic isolates of Theileria from cattle, elk and white-tailed deer. Vet Parasitol 75:42.
  4. Stockman SL, Kjemtrup AM, Conrad PA, et al. 2000. Theileriosis in a Missouri beef herd caused by Theileria buffeli: case report, herd investigation, ultrastructure, phylogenetic analysis, and experimental transmission. Vet Pathol 37:11.

Equine Leptospirosis

  1. Songer JG, Thiermann AB. 1988. Leptospirosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:1250. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Barwick RS, Mohammed HO, McDonough PL, et al. 1998. Epidemiological features of equine Leptospira interrogans of human significance. Prev Vet Med 36:153. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Donahue JM, Williams NM. 2000. Emergent causes of placentitis and abortions. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16:443. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Divers TJ. 2006. Equine leptospirosis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention. ACVIM Proc 24:140.
  5. Faber NA, Crawford M, LeFebvre RB, et al. 2000. Detection of Leptospira spp. in the aqueous humor of horses with naturally acquired recurrent uveitis. J Clin Microbiol 38:2731. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Conboy HS. 2005. Preventing contagious equine diseases. AAEP Proc 51:439.

Equine Infectious Anemia

  1. Lignée M. 1843. Mémoire et observation sur une maladie de sang, conque sous le nom d'anémie hydrohemie, cachexie aqueuse du chaval. Rec Med Vet 20:30.
  2. Carré H, Vallée H. 1904. Sur l'anémie infectieuse du cheval. Compt Rend Acad Sci 139:1239.
  3. Coggins L, Norcross NL. 1970. Immunodiffusion reaction in equine infectious anemia. Cornell Vet 60:330. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Coggins L, Norcross NL, Nusbaum SR. 1972. Diagnosis of equine infectious anemia by immunodiffusion test. Am J Vet Res 33:11. PUBMED Abstract
  5. USDA. 2002. Equine infectious anemia: uniform methods and rules, pp. 1-12. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
  6. Craigo JK, Leroux C, Howe L. 2002. Transient immune suppression of inapparent carriers infected with a principal neutralizing domain-deficient equine infectious anaemia virus induces neutralizing antibodies and lowers steady-state virus replication. J Gen Virol 83:1353. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Oaks JL, Long MT, Baszler TV. 2004. Leukoencephalitis associated with selective viral replication in the brain of a pony with experimental chronic equine infectious anemia virus infection. Vet Pathol 41:527. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Leroux C, Cadore JL, Montelaro RC. 2004. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV): what has HIV's country cousin got to tell us? Vet Res 35:485. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Kono Y, Kobayashi K, Fukunaga Y. 1973. Antigenic drift of equine infectious anemia virus in chronically infected horses. Arch Ges Virus Forsch 41:1. PUBMED Abstract
  10. McGuire TC, Fraser DG, Mealey RH. 2002. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and neutralizing antibody in the control of equine infectious anemia virus. Viral Immunol 15:521. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Sellon DC, Perry ST, Coggins L, et al. 1992. Wild-type equine infectious anemia virus replicates in vivo predominantly in tissue macrophages, not in peripheral blood monocytes. J Virol 66:5906. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Oaks JL, McGuire TC, Ulibarri C, et al. 1998. Equine infectious anemia virus is found in tissue macrophages during subclinical infection. J Virol 72:7263. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Rivera JA, McGuire TC. 2005. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability. Virology 335:145. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Oaks JL, Ulibarri C, Crawford TB. 1999. Endothelial cell infection in vivo by equine infectious anaemia virus. J Gen Virol 80:2393. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Lasne D, Jude B, Susen S. 2006. From normal to pathological hemostasis. Can J Anaesth 53:S2. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Russell KE, Perkins PC, Hoffmann MR, et al. 1999. Platelets from thrombocytopenic ponies acutely infected with equine infectious anemia virus are activated in vivo and hypofunctional. Virology 259:7. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Sellon DC. 1993. Equine infectious anemia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9:321. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Russell KE, Walker KM, Miller RT, et al. 1998. Hyperglobulinemia and lymphocyte subset changes in naturally infected, inapparent carriers of equine infectious anemia virus. Am J Vet Res 59:1009. PUBMED Abstract

Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

  1. Beck DJ. 1990. A case of primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a pony. Equine Vet J 22:292. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Fenger CK, Hoffsis GF, Kociba CJ, et al. 1992. Idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:97. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Ford RB. 1980. Immune-mediate hemolytic anemia: a clinical review. Calif Vet 34:13.
  4. Mair TS, Taylor FG, Hillyer MH. 1990. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in eight horses. Vet Rec 126:51. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Collins JD. 1975. Autoimmune haemolytic anemia in the horse. Equine Hematol Proc 1:342.
  6. Blue JT, Dinsmore RP, Anderson KL. 1987. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia induced by penicillin in horses. Cornell Vet 77:263. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Lokhurst HM, Breukink HJ. 1975. Auto-immune hemolytic anemia in two horses. Tijdschr Diergeneesk 100:752. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Step DL, Blue JT, Dill SG. 1991. Penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia and acute hepatic failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse. Cornell Vet 81:13. PUBMED Abstract
  9. McConnico RS, Roberts MC, Tompkins M. 1992. Penicillin-induced immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:1402. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Robbins RL, Wallace SS, Brunner CJ, et al. 1993. Immune-mediated haemolytic disease after penicillin therapy in a horse. Equine Vet J 25:462. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Thomas HL, Livesey MA. 1998. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia associated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole administration in a horse. Can Vet J 39:171. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Wilkerson MJ, Davis J, Shuman W, et al. 2000. Isotype-specific antibodies in horses and dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. J Vet Intern Med 14:190. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Geor RJ, Clark EG, Haines DM, et al. 1990. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a filly. J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:1489. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Messer NT, Arnold K. 1991. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:1415. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Boyle AG, Magdesian KG, Ruby RE. 2005. Neonatal isoerythrolysis in horse foals and a mule foal: 18 cases (1988-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:1276. PUBMED Abstract

Heinz Body Hemolytic Anemia

  1. Harvey JW, Kaneko JJ. 1974. Interactions between methylene blue and erythrocytes of several mammalian species in vitro. Soc Exp Biol Med Proc 147:245. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Easley JR. 1985. Erythrogram and red cell distribution width of equidae with experimentally induced anemia. Am J Vet Res 46:2378. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Pierce KR, Joyce JR, England RB, et al. 1972. Acute hemolytic anemia caused by wild onion poisoning in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 160:323. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Divers TJ, George LW, George JW. 1982. Hemolytic anemia in horses after the ingestion of red maple leaves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:300. PUBMED Abstract
  5. George LW, Divers TJ, Mahaffey EA, et al. 1982. Heinz body anemia and methemoglobinemia in ponies given red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves. Vet Pathol 19:521. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Tennant B, Dill SG, Glickman LT, et al. 1981. Acute hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and Heinz body formation associated with ingestion of red maple leaves by horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 179:143. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Warner A. 1984. Methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia in a horse with acute renal failure. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 8:S465.
  8. Weber M, Miller RE. 1997. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). J Zoo Wildl Med 28:105. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Dewitt SF, Bedenice D, Mazan MR. 2004. Hemolysis and Heinz body formation associated with ingestion of red maple leaves in two alpacas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:578. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Alward A, Corriher CA, Barton MH, et al. 2006. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf toxicosis in horses: a retrospective study of 32 cases. J Vet Intern Med 20:1197. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Simpson CF, Anderson B. 1980. Heinz body anemia in cattle grazing rye pastures. Florida Vet J 9:26.
  12. Morris JG, Cripe WS, Chapman HL Jr, et al. 1984. Selenium deficiency in cattle associated with Heinz bodies and anemia. Science 223:491. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Ellison RS, Young BJ, Read DH. 1991. Bovine post-parturient haemoglobinuria: two distinct entities in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 34:7. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Rollins JB, Wigton DH, Clement TH. 1991. Heinz body anemia associated with lymphosarcoma in a horse. Equine Pract 13:20.
  15. Boyer JD, Breeden DC, Brown DL. 2002. Isolation, identification, and characterization of compounds from Acer rubrum capable of oxidizing equine erythrocytes. Am J Vet Res 63:604. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Dixon PM, McPherson EA, Muir A. 1977. Familial methaemoglobinaemia and haemolytic anaemia in the horse associated with decreased erythrocytic glutathione reductase and glutathione. Equine Vet J 9:198. PUBMED Abstract
  17. McConnico RS, Brownie CF. 1992. The use of ascorbic acid in the treatment of 2 cases of red maple (Acer rubrum)-poisoned horses. Cornell Vet 82:293. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Corriher CA, Parviainen AKJ, Gibbons DS, et al. 1999. Equine red maple leaf toxicosis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 21:74.

Other Causes of Hemolytic Anemia

  1. Norman TE, Chaffin MK, Johnson MC, et al. 2002. Intravascular hemolysis associated with severe cutaneous burn injuries in five horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2039. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Lawrence C, Atac B. 1992. Hematologic changes in massive burn injury. Crit Care Med 20:1284. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Wong CH, Song C, Heng KS, et al. 2006. Plasma free hemoglobin: a novel diagnostic test for assessment of the depth of burn injury. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:1206. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Paradis MR, Breeze RG, Bayly WM, et al. 1991. Acute hemolytic anemia after oral administration of L-tryptophan in ponies. Am J Vet Res 52:742. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Paradis MR, Breeze RG, Laegreid WW, et al. 1991. Acute hemolytic anemia induced by oral administration of indole in ponies. Am J Vet Res 52:748. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Shimizu Y, Naito Y, Murakami D. 1979. The experimental study on the mechanism of hemolysis on paroxysmal hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria in calves due to excessive water intake. Jpn J Vet Sci 41:583. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Hannan J. 1965. Water intoxication of calves. Irish Vet J 19:211.
  8. Wright MA. 1961. Haemaglobinuria from excessive water drinking. Vet Rec 73:129.
  9. Kirkbride CA, Frey RA. 1967. Experimental water intoxication in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 151:742. PUBMED Abstract
  10. MacWilliams PS, Searcy GP, Bellamy JEC. 1982. Bovine post-parturient haemoglobinuria: a review of the literature. Can Vet J 23:309. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Parkinson B, Sutherland AK. 1954. Post-parturient haemoglobinuria of dairy cows. Aust Vet J 30:232.

Copper Toxicosis

  1. Bostwick JL. 1982. Copper toxicosis in sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:386. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Auza NJ, Olson WG, Murphy MJ, et al. 1999. Diagnosis and treatment of copper toxicosis in ruminants. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:1624. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Soli NE. 1980. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep. A review of the literature. Nord Vet Med 32:75. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Marston HR, Lee HJ. 1948. The effects of copper deficiency and of chronic overdosage with copper on Border Leicester and Merino sheep. J Agr Sci 38:229.
  5. Bradley CH. 1990. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement. Can Vet J 31:629. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Gummow B. 1996. Experimentally induced copper toxicosis in cattle. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 63:277. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Hartmans J. 1975. De frequentie van het optreden van kopervergiftiging bij schapen en de rol van het schapen-kracht-voer daarbij. Verslag van een enquete. [The incidence of copper poisoning in sheep and the role of concentrates as a causative factor. Report of an inquiry]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 100:379. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Hogan KG, Money Fl, Blaney A. 1968. The effect of molybdate and sulfate supplement on the accumulation of copper in the livers of penned sheep. N Z J Agr Res 11:435.
  9. Todd JR. 1969. Chronic copper toxicity of ruminants. Proc Nutr Soc 28:189. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Sass-Kortsak A. 1965. Copper metabolism. Adv Clin Chem 8:1. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Weber KM, Boston RC, Leaver DD. 1980. A kinetic model of copper metabolism in sheep. Aust J Agric Res 31:773.
  12. White RD, Swick RA, Cheeke PR. 1984. Effects of dietary copper and molybdenum on tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) toxicity in sheep. Am J Vet Res 45:159. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Arora RG, Andersson L, Bucht RS, et al. 1977. Chronic copper toxicosis in sheep. Nord Vet Med 29:181. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Macpherson A, Hemmingway RG. 1965. Effect of protein intake on the storage of copper in the liver of sheep. J Sci Food Agric 16:220.
  15. Batey T, Berryman C, Line C. 1972. The disposal of copper-enriched pig manure slurry on grassland. J Brit Grassland Soc 27:139.
  16. Bremner I, Young BW, Mills CF. 1976. Protective effects of zinc supplementation against copper toxicosis in sheep. Br J Nutr 36:551. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Humphries WR, Phillippo M, Young BW, et al. 1983. The influence of dietary iron and molybdenum on copper metabolism in calves. Br J Nutr 49:77. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Cousins RJ. 1983. Metallothionein—aspects related to copper and zinc metabolism. J Inherit Metab Dis 6:S15. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Van Nierkerk FE, Cloete SW, Coetzer WA, et al. 1994. The assessment of the toxicity of parenteral treatment with copper EDTA and copper heptonate in sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc 65:46. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Mahmoud OH, Ford EJ. 1981. Injection of sheep with organic compounds of copper. Vet Rec 108:114. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Humann-Ziehank E, Coenen M, Ganter M, et al. 2001. Long-term observation of subclinical chronic copper poisoning in two sheep breeds. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 48:429. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Weiner G, Macleod NS, Breed M. 1970. Body weight and age as factors in the mortality rate of sheep following copper injection. Vet Rec 86:740. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Gardiner B. 1978. Toxicity of copper injection. Vet Rec 103:408. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Shand A, Lewis G. 1957. Chronic copper poisoning in young calves. Vet Rec 69:618.
  25. Gooneratne SR, Howell J, Cook RD. 1980. An ultrastructural and morphometric study of the liver of normal and copper-poisoned sheep. Am J Pathol 99:429. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Howell JM, Blakemore WF, Gopinath C, et al. 1974. Chronic copper poisoning and changes in the central nervous system of sheep. Acta Neuropath (Berl) 29:9. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Tait RM, Krishnamurti CR, Gilchrist FW, et al. 1971. Chronic copper poisoning in feeder lambs. Can Vet J 12:73. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Froslie A, Norheim G. 1976. The concentrations of molybdenum and zinc in liver in relation to copper accumulation in normal and copper poisoned sheep. Acta Vet Scand 17:307. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Ganter M, Bickhardt K, Stockhofe N, et al. 1991. The diagnostic significance of some blood constituents and of liver biopsy in the chronic copper toxicosis in sheep. Tierarztl Prax 19:141. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Harker DB. 1976. The use of molybdenum for the prevention of nutritional copper poisoning in housed sheep. Vet Rec 99:78. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Blakley BR, Berzowski JA, Schiefer HB. 1982. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy cow. Can Vet J 23:190. PUBMED Abstract
  32. McCosker PJ. 1968. Observations on blood copper in sheep. II. Chronic copper poisoning. Res Vet Sci 9:103. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Soli NE, Nafstad I. 1976. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep. Structural changes in erythrocytes and organs. Acta Vet Scand 17:316. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Howell JM, Gopinath C. 1977. Copper toxicity in sheep: the effects of repeated intravenous injections of copper sulphate. Res Vet Sci 22:86. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Soli N, Froslie A, Aaseth J. 1978. The mobilization of copper in sheep by chelating agents. Acta Vet Scand 19:422. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Humann-Ziehank E, Bickhardt K. 2001. Effects of D-penicillamine on urinary copper excretion in high-copper supplemented sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 48:537. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Van Ryssen JBJ. 1994. The effectiveness of using supplementary zinc and molybdenum to reduce the copper content in the liver of hypercuprotic sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc 65:59. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Allen JD, Gawthorne JM. 1987. Involvement of the solid phase of rumen digesta in the interaction between copper, molybdenum, and sulphur in sheep. Br J Nutr 58:265. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Marcilese NA, Ammerman CB, Valsecchi RM, et al. 1969. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphate upon urinary excretion of copper in sheep. J Ntr 99:177. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Ogra Y, Ohmichi M, Suzuki KT. 1996. Mechanisms of selective copper removal by tetrathiomolybdate from metallothionein in LEC rats. Toxicology 106:75. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Perez-Hernandez A, Lopez Lopez R. 1988. Intoxicacion cronica de cobre en bovinos. Vet Mex 19:241.
  42. Kumaratilake JS, Howell JM. 1989. Intravenously administered tetrathiomolybdate and the removal of copper from the liver of copper-loaded sheep. J Comp Pathol 101:177. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Howell JM, Kumaratilake JS. 1990. Effect of intravenously administered tetrathiomolybdate on plasma copper concentrations of copper-loaded sheep. J Comp Pathol 103:321. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Suttle NF. 1979. Changes in hepatic copper stores in pre-ruminant and ruminant lambs given ammonium tetrathiomolybdate in their diets. Proc Nutr Soc 38:58. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Humphries WR, Morrice PC, Bremner I. 1988. A convenient method for the treatment of chronic copper poisoning in sheep using subcutaneous ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Vet Rec 123:51. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Kumaratilake JS, Howell JM. 1987. Effects of intravenously administered tetrathiomolybdate on the distribution of copper in the liver and kidney of copper loaded sheep: a histochemical study. Res Vet Sci 42:154. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Symonds HW, Ke Y. 1989. Enhancement of tetrathiomolybdate-induced copper excretion in bile of sheep by the β2 agonistic action of xylazine. Res Vet Sci 46:349. PUBMED Abstract
  48. El-Gallad TT, Bremner I, Mills CF. 1977. The effect of thiomolybdate on copper metabolism in the sheep: a cautionary note. Proc Nutr Soc 36:104. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Gooneratne SR, Howell JM, Gawthorne JM. 1981. Intravenous administration of thiomolybdate for the prevention of chronic copper poisoning in sheep. Br J Nutr 46:457. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Gooneratne SR, Chaplin RK, Trent AM, et al. 1989. Effect of tetrathiomolybdate administration on the excretion of copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum in sheep bile. Br Vet J 145:62. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Andrewartha KA, Caple IW. 1980. Effects of changes in nutritional copper on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in sheep. Res Vet Sci 28:101. PUBMED Abstract

Hemolytic Syndrome in Horses with Liver Failure and Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria

  1. Tennant BC, Evans CD, Kaneko JJ, et al. 1972. Intravascular hemolysis associated with hepatic failure in the horse. Calif Vet 26:15.
  2. Carlson GP. 1992. The liver. In Anderson NV (ed), Veterinary gastroenterology, ed 2. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Schalm OW, Carlson GP. 1982. The blood and blood-forming organs. In Mansmann RA, McAllister ES (eds), Equine medicine and surgery, ed 3. American Veterinary Publications, Santa Barbara, CA.
  4. Rhode EA, Cornelius CE. 1958. Congenital porphyria (pink tooth) in Holstein-Fresian calves in California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 132:112. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Kaneko JJ. 1997. Porphyrins, heme erythrocyte metabolism: the porphyrias. In Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds), Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, ed 5. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  6. Agerholm JS, Thulstrup PW, Bjerrum MJ, et al. 2012. A molecular study of congenital erythropoietic porphyria in cattle. Anim Genet 43:210. PUBMED Abstract

Depression Anemia

  1. Grace N, Pearce SG, Firth EC, et al. 1999. Concentrations of macro- and microelements in the milk of pasture-fed thoroughbred mares. Aust Vet J 77:177.
  2. Tennant B, Harrold D, Reina-Guerra M, et al. 1975. Hematology of the neonatal calf III. Frequency of congenital iron deficiency anemia. Cornell Vet 65:543. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Gygax M, Hirni H, Zwahlen R, et al. 1993. Immune functions of veal calves fed low amounts of iron. Zentralbl Veterinarmed 40:345. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Gleed PT, Sanson BF. 1982. Ingestion of iron in sow's feces by piglets reared in farrowing crates with slotted floors. Br J Nutri 47:113. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Smith JE, Cipriano JE, DeBowes R, et al. 1986. Iron deficiency and pseudo-iron deficiency in hospitalized horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:285. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Kohn C, Jacobs RM, Knight D, et al. 1990. Microcytosis, hypoferremia, hypoferritemia, and hypertransferrinemia in Standardbred foals from birth to 4 months of age. Am J Vet Res 51:1198. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Bromeer H, van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. 2001. Iron deficiency in stabled Dutch warmblood foals. J Vet Intern Med 15:482. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Fleming KA, Barton MH, Latimer KS. 2006. Iron deficiency anemia in a neonatal foal. J Vet Intern Med 20:1495. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Hartikka P, Dahlbom M, Westermark H. 1983. Effect of iron-saccharate injections of Finnish horses. Nord Vet Med 35:251. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Ruhr LP, Nicholson SS, Confer AW, et al. 1983. Acute intoxication from a hematinic in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:616. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Pearson EG, Hedstrom OR, Poppenga RH, et al. 1994. Hepatic cirrhosis and hemochromatosis in three horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:1053.
  12. Smith B. 1975. The effects of copper supplementation on stock health and production. N Z Vet J 23:73. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Lee GR. 1983. The anemia of chronic disease. Semin Hematol 20:61. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Feldman BF, Kaneko JJ. 1981. The anemia of inflammatory disease in the dog. 1. The nature of the problem. Vet Res Commun 4:237. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Lavoie J-P, Morris DD, Zinkl JG, et al. 1987. Pancytopenia caused by bone marrow aplasia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:1462. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Weiss DJ, Miller DC. 1985. Bone marrow necrosis associated with pancytopenia in a cow. Vet Pathol 22:90. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Kohn CW, Swardson C, Provost P, et al. 1995. Myeloid and megakaryocytic hypoplasia in related Standardbreds. J Vet Intern Med 9:315. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Erslev AJ. 1983. Hemopoietic stem cell disorders: aplastic, pp 151-170. In Williams WJ (ed), Hematology, ed 3. McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
  19. Keitt AS. 2006. Anemia due to failure of progenitor cells, pp 831-837. In Goldman L, Krevans J (eds), Cecil textbook of medicine, ed 22. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
  20. Archer RK, Miller WC. 1965. A case of idiopathic hypoplastic anaemia in a two-year-old thoroughbred filly. Vet Rec 77:538. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Berggren PC. 1981. Aplastic anemia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 179:1400. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Ward MV, Moutan PC, Dodds WJ. 1980. Severe idiopathic refractory anemia and leukopenia in a horse. Calif Vet 34:19.
  23. Dunavant ML, Murry ES. 1975. Clinical evidence of phenylbutazone-induced hypoplastic anemia. Int Symp Equine Hematol Proc 1:383.
  24. Aiello SE. 1998. The Merck veterinary manual, ed 8. Merck & Co Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, pp 2026-2028.
  25. Piercy RJ, Swardson CJ, Hinchcliff KW. 1997. Paradoxical erythroid hypoplasia and anemia in Standardbred racehorses following recombinant human erythropoietin administration. AAEP Proc 43:283.

Erythrocytosis (Polycythemia)

  1. Tennant B, Asbury AC, Laben RC, et al. 1967. Familial polycythemia in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 150:1493. PUBMED Abstract
  2. McMullin MF, Bareford D, Campbell P, et al. 2005. Guidelines for the diagnosis, investigation and management of polycythaemia/erythrocytosis. Br J Haematol 130:174. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Beech J, Bloom JC, Hodge TG. 1984. Erythrocytosis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:986. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Bayly WM, Reed SM, Leathers CW, et al. 1982. Multiple congenital heart anomalies in five Arabian foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 81:684. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Prchal JT. 2003. Classification and molecular biology of polycythemias (erythrocytoses) and thrombocytosis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 17:1151. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Roby KA, Beech J, Bloom JC, et al. 1990. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with erythrocytosis and hypoglycemia in a yearling filly. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:1106. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Lennox TJ, Wilson JH, Hayden DW, et al. 2000. Hepatoblastoma with erythrocytosis in a young female horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216:718. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Axon JE, Russell CM, Begg AP, Adkins AR. 2008. Erythrocytosis and pleural effusion associated with a hepatoblastoma in a Thoroughbred yearling. Aust Vet J 86:329. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Koch TG, Wen X, Bienzle D. 2006. Lymphoma, erythrocytosis, and tumor erythropoietin gene expression in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 20:1251. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Campbell KL. 1990. Diagnosis and management of polycythemia in dog. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 12:543.

Proliferative Disorders of Lymphoid and Myeloid Systems

  1. Asahina M, Kimura K, Murakami K, et al. 1995. Phenotypic analysis of neoplastic cells from calf, thymic, and intermediate forms of bovine leukosis. Vet Pathol 32:683. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Vernau W, Jacobs RM, Valli VE, et al. 1997. The immunophenotypic characterization of bovine lymphomas. Vet Pathol 34:222. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Theilen GH, Madewell BR. 1987. Hematopoietic neoplasms, sarcomas and related conditions, pp 408-430. In Theilen GH, Madewell BR (eds), Veterinary cancer medicine, ed 2. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. Matthews HK, Hunt E, Duncan DE. 1992. Thymic and mammary lymphosarcoma in a three-year-old heifer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:699. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Alexander AN, Constable PD, Meier WA, et al. 1996. Clinical and immunohistochemical characterization of thymic lymphosarcoma in a heifer. J Vet Intern Med 10:275. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Duncan RB Jr, Scarratt WK, Buehring GC. 2005. Detection of bovine leukemia virus by in situ polymerase chain reaction in tissues from a heifer diagnosed with sporadic thymic lymphosarcoma. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:190. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Dubreuil P, Lanevschi A, Perrone MA, et al. 1998. Atypical sporadic lymphosarcoma in a 7-month-old Holstein heifer. Can Vet J 39:431. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Dalgleish R, Callanan JJ, McNeil PE. 1991. An atypical case of lymphosarcoma (sporadic bovine leukosis) in a heifer. Vet Rec 129:308. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Step DL, Cummings CA, Streeter RN, et al. 2001. An atypical lymphoma of T-cell lineage in the thorax of an aged cow. J Vet Diagn Invest 13:154. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Jacobs RM, Song Z, Poon H, et al. 1992. Proviral detection and serology in bovine leukemia virus-exposed normal cattle and cattle with lymphoma. Can J Vet Res 56:339. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Klinkon M, Cerne M. 2006. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in a heifer with increased serum lactate dehydrogenase activity. Vet Clin Pathol 35:231. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Van der Maaten MJ, Boothe AD, Seger CL. 1972. Isolation of a virus from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 49:1649. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Meas S, Usui T, Ohashi K, et al. 2002. Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy cattle herds. Vet Microbiol 84:275. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Sorensen DK, Beal VC. 1979. Prevalence and economics of bovine leukosis in the United States. Bovine Leukosis Symposium 33.
  15. Thurmond MC, Lapuz GR, Farver TB, et al. 1985. Retrospective study of four years of carcass condemnation rates for malignant lymphoma in California cows. Am J Vet Res 46:1387. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Thurmond MC, Holmberg CH, Picanso JP. 1985. Antibodies to bovine leukemia virus and presence of malignant lymphoma in slaughtered California dairy cattle. J Natl Cancer Inst 74:711. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Cypess RH, Waller JH, Redmond CK, et al. 1974. Epidemiologic and pedigree study of the occurrence of lymphosarcoma from 1953 to 1971 in a closed herd of Jersey cows. Am J Epidemiol 99:37. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Lewin HA, Bernoco D. 1986. Evidence for BoLA-linked resistance and susceptibility to subclinical progression of bovine leukaemia virus infection. Anim Genet 17:197. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Palmer C, Thurmond M, Picanso J, et al. 1987. Susceptibility of cattle to bovine leukemia virus infection associated with BoLA type. Proc U S Anim Health Assoc 218.
  20. Juliarena MA, Poli M, Sala L, et al. 2008. Association of BLV infection profiles with alleles of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene. Anim Genet 39:432. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Buehring GC, Kramme PM, Schultz RD. 1994. Evidence for bovine leukemia virus in mammary epithelial cells of infected cows. Lab Invest 71:359. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Pollari FL, Wangsuphachart VL, DiGiacomo RF, et al. 1992. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Can J Vet Res 56:289. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Sargeant JM, Kelton DF, Martin SW, et al. 1997. Associations between farm management practices, productivity, and bovine leukemia virus infection in Ontario dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 31:211. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Ott SL, Johnson R, Wells SJ. 2003. Association between bovine leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms. Prev Vet Med 61:249. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Thurmond MC. 1987. Economics of enzootic bovine leukosis, pp 71-84. In Burny A, Mammerickx M (eds), Enzootic bovine leukosis and bovine leukemia virus. M. Nijhoff, Boston, MA.
  26. Thurmond MC, Maden CB, Carter RL. 1985. Cull rates of dairy cattle with antibodies to bovine leukemia virus. Cancer Res 45:1987. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Kono Y, Sentsui H, Arai K, et al. 1983. Studies of foetuses from cows clinically affected with bovine leucosis. Vet Microbiol 8:505. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Lassauzet ML, Thurmond MC, Johnson WO, et al. 1991. Factors associated with in utero or periparturient transmission of bovine leukemia virus in calves on a California dairy. Can J Vet Res 55:264. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Sorge US, Lissemore K, Cantin R, et al. 2011. Short communication: milk ELISA status for bovine leukosis virus infection is not associated with milk production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 94:5062. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Tiwari A, Vanleeuwen JA, Dohoo IR, et al. 2007. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. J Dairy Sci 90:659. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Kale M, Bulut O, Yapkic O, et al. 2007. Effects of subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection on some production parameters in a dairy farm in southern Turkey. J S Afr Vet Assoc 78:130. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Erskine RJ, Bartlett PC, Byrem TM, et al. 2012. Association between bovine leukemia virus, production, and population age in Michigan dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 95:727. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Burton AJ, Nydam DV, Long ED, et al. 2010. Signalment and clinical complaints initiating hospital admission, methods of diagnosis, and pathological findings associated with bovine lymphosarcoma (112 cases). J Vet Intern Med 24:960. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Peek SF, McGuirk SM, Gaska J, et al. 2012. Idiopathic hemorrhagic pericardial effusion as a precursor to epicardial lymphosarcoma in three cows. J Vet Intern Med 26:1069. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Braun U, Schnetzler C, Dettwiler M, et al. 2011. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: case report. BMC Vet Res 7:20. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Muscoplat CC, Johnson DW, Pomeroy KA, et al. 1974. Lymphocyte surface immunoglobulin: frequency in normal and lymphocytotic cattle. Am J Vet Res 35:593.
  37. Weiland F, Straub OC. 1975. Frequency of surface immunoglobulin bearing blood lymphocytes in cattle affected with bovine leukosis. Res Vet Sci 19:100. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Juliarena MA, Gutierrez SE, Ceriani C. 2007. Determination of proviral load in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with and without lymphocytosis. Am J Vet Res 68:1220. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Nagy DW, Tyler JW, Kleiboeker SB. 2007. Timing of seroconversion and acquisition of positive polymerase chain reaction assay results in calves experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus. Am J Vet Res 68:72. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Washburn KE, Streeter RN, Lehenbauer TW, et al. 2007. Comparison of core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes for antemortem diagnosis of enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:228. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Simard C, Richardson S, Dixon P, et al. 2000. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine leukosis: comparison with the agar gel immunodiffusion test approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Can J Vet Res 64:101. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Gutierrez G, Alvarez I, Fondevila N, et al. 2009. Detection of bovine leukemia virus specific antibodies using recombinant p24-ELISA. Vet Microbiol 137:224. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Agresti A, Ponti W, Rocchi M, et al. 1993. Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose bovine leukemia virus infection in calves at birth. Am J Vet Res 54:373. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Klintevall K, Ballagi-Pordany A, Naslund K, et al. 1994. Bovine leukaemia virus: rapid detection of proviral DNA by nested PCR in blood and organs of experimentally infected calves. Vet Microbiol 42:191. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Fechner H, Kurg A, Geue L, et al. 1996. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) application in diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in naturally infected cattle. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 43:621. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Rola M, Kuzmak J. 2002. The detection of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA by PCR-ELISA. J Virol Methods 99:33. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Reichel MP, Tham KM, Barnes S, et al. 1998. Evaluation of alternative methods for the detection of bovine leukaemia virus in cattle. N Z Vet J 46:140. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Nagy DW, Tyler JW, Kleiboeker SB, et al. 2003. Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine leukosis virus in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222:983. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Kuckleburg CJ, Chase CC, Nelson EA, et al. 2003. Detection of bovine leukemia virus in blood and milk by nested and real-time polymerase chain reactions. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:72. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Komiyama C, Suzuki K, Miura Y, et al. 2009. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection. J Virol Methods 157:175. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Burridge MJ, Thurmond MC, Miller JM, et al. 1982. Fall in antibody titer to bovine leukemia virus in the periparturient period. Can J Comp Med 46:270. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Hugoson G. 1967. Juvenile bovine leukosis. An epizootiological, clinical, patho-anatomical and experimental study. Acta Vet Scand (Suppl. 22):5.
  53. Fukuyama S, Kodama K, Hirahara T, et al. 1993. Protection against bovine leukemia virus infection by use of inactivated vaccines in cattle. J Vet Med Sci 55:99. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Ohishi K, Suzuki H, Yamamoto T, et al. 1991. Protective immunity against bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) induced in carrier sheep by inoculation with a vaccinia virus-BLV env recombinant: association with cell-mediated immunity. J Gen Virol 72(Pt 8):1887. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Ohishi K, Suzuki H, Yasutomi Y, et al. 1992. Augmentation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in ruminants by inoculation with BLV env-recombinant vaccinia virus: their role in the suppression of BLV replication. Microbiol Immunol 36:1317. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Cherney TM, Schultz RD. 1996. Viral status and antibody response in cattle inoculated with recombinant bovine leukemia virus-vaccinia virus vaccines after challenge exposure with bovine leukemia virus-infected lymphocytes. Am J Vet Res 57:812. PUBMED Abstract
  57. DiGiacomo RF, Darlington RL, Evermann JF. 1985. Natural transmission of bovine leukemia virus in dairy calves by dehorning. Can J Comp Med 49:340. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Johnson R, Gibson CD, Kaneene JB. 1983. Bovine leukemia virus: a herd-based model for control and eradication [Abstract], p 46. Annual Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease.
  59. Thurmond MC, Portier KM, Puhr DM, et al. 1983. A prospective investigation of bovine leukemia virus infection in young dairy cattle, using survival methods. Am J Epidemiol 117:621. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Lucas MH, Roberts DH, Banks J. 1993. Shedding of bovine leukosis virus in nasal secretions of infected animals. Vet Rec 132:276. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Roberts DH, Lucas MH, Wibberley G. 1986. To compare the incubation period following intratracheal and subcutaneous inoculation of bovine leukosis virus infected lymphocytes and to study their clearance from the circulation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 11:351. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Roberts DH, Lucas MH, Wibberley G, et al. 1982. Detection of bovine leukosis virus in bronchoalveolar lung washings and nasal secretions. Vet Rec 111:501. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Roberts DH, Lucas MH, Wibberley G, et al. 1982. An investigation into the susceptibility of cattle to bovine leukosis virus following inoculation by various routes. Vet Rec 110:222. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Henry ET, Levine JF, Coggins L. 1987. Rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle and sheep. Am J Vet Res 48:634. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Hopkins SG, DiGiacomo RF, Evermann JF, et al. 1991. Rectal palpation and transmission of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:1035. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Hopkins SG, DiGiacomo RF, Evermann JF, et al. 1988. Trauma and rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle. J Infect Dis 158:1133. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Hopkins SG, Evermann JF, DiGiacomo RF, et al. 1988. Experimental transmission of bovine leukosis virus by simulated rectal palpation. Vet Rec 122:389. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Wentink GH, van Oirschot JT, Pelgrim W, et al. 1993. Experimental transmission of bovine leukosis virus by rectal palpation. Vet Rec 132:135. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Perino LJ, Wright RE, Hoppe KL, et al. 1990. Bovine leukosis virus transmission with mouthparts from Tabanus abactor after interrupted feeding. Am J Vet Res 51:1167. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Hasselschwert DL, French DD, Hribar LJ, et al. 1993. Relative susceptibility of beef and dairy calves to infection by bovine leukemia virus via tabanid (Diptera tabanidae) feeding. J Med Entomol 30:472. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Thurmond MC, Carter RL, Burridge MJ. 1983. An investigation for seasonal trends in bovine leukemia virus infection. Prev Vet Med 1:115.
  72. Wilesmith JW, Straub OC, Lorenz RJ. 1980. Some observations on the epidemiology of bovine leucosis virus infection in a large dairy herd. Res Vet Sci 28:10. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Lassauzet ML, Thurmond MC, Johnson WO, et al. 1990. Effect of brucellosis vaccination and dehorning on transmission of bovine leukemia virus in heifers on a California dairy. Can J Vet Res 54:184. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Thurmond MC. 1982. Epidemiology of the natural transmission of bovine leukemia virus. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  75. Weber AF, Meiske JC, Haggard DL, et al. 1988. Failure to demonstrate transmission of enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection from cows to sheep by use of common injection needles. Am J Vet Res 49:1814. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Roberts DH, Lucas MH, Wibberley G, et al. 1981. Investigation of the possible role of the tuberculin intradermal test in the spread of enzootic bovine leukosis. Vet Res Commun 4:301. PUBMED Abstract
  77. DiGiacomo RF, Studer E, Evermann JF, et al. 1986. Embryo transfer and transmission of bovine leukosis virus in a dairy herd. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:827. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Eaglesome MD, Hare WCD, Singh EL. 1980. Embryo transfer: a discussion on its potential for infectious disease control based on a review of studies on infection of gametes and early embryos by various agents. Can Vet J 21:106. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Eaglesome MD, Mitchell D, Betteridge KJ, et al. 1982. Transfer of embryos from bovine leukaemia virus-infected cattle to uninfected recipients: preliminary results. Vet Rec 111:122. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Hare WCD. 1983. Embryo transfer and disease transmission in farm animals [A review], pp 303-314. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association.
  81. Olson C, Rowe RF, Kaja R. 1982. Embryo transplantation and bovine leukosis virus preliminary report, pp 1361-1369. Fourth International Symposium on Bovine Leukosis.
  82. Lucas MH, Dawson M, Chasey D, et al. 1980. Enzootic bovine leucosis virus in semen. Vet Rec 106:128. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Lorton SP, Maki-Laurila M, Rowe R, et al. 1987. Leukosis-negative status of calves produced by embryo splitting. Theriogenology 27:250.
  84. Choi KY, Monke D, Stott JL. 2002. Absence of bovine leukosis virus in semen of seropositive bulls. J Vet Diagn Invest 14:403. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Fukai K, Sato M, Kawara M, et al. 1999. A case of an embryo transfer calf infected with bovine leukemia virus from the recipient cow. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 46:511. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Jacobsen KL, Bull RW, Miller JM, et al. 1983. Transmission of bovine leukemia virus: prevalence of antibodies in precolostral calves. Prev Vet Med 1:265.
  87. Thurmond MC, Carter RL, Puhr DM, et al. 1983. An epidemiological study of natural in utero infection with bovine leukemia virus. Can J Comp Med 47:316. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Bielanski A, Maxwell P, Simard C. 2000. Effect of bovine leukaemia virus on embryonic development and association with in vitro fertilised embryos. Vet Rec 146:255. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Rhodes JK, Pelzer KD, Johnson YJ. 2003. Economic implications of bovine leukemia virus infection in mid-Atlantic dairy herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:346. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Molloy JB, Dimmock CK, Eaves FW, et al. 1994. Control of bovine leukaemia virus transmission by selective culling of infected cattle on the basis of viral antigen expression in lymphocyte cultures. Vet Microbiol 39:323. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Nagy DW, Tyler JW, Kleiboeker SB. 2007. Decreased periparturient transmission of bovine leukosis virus in colostrum-fed calves. J Vet Intern Med 21:1104. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Kobayashi S, Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, et al. 2010. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan. BMC Vet Res 6:1. PUBMED Abstract

Lymphoma in Horses

  1. Baker J, Ellis C. 1985. A survey of postmortem findings in 480 horses. Equine Vet J 13:43. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Kerr KM, Alden CL. 1974. Equine neoplasia: a ten-year survey. Am Assoc Vet Lab Diagn Proc 183.
  3. Tomlinson MJ, Doster AR, Wright ER. 1979. Lymphosarcoma with virus-like particles in a neonatal foal. Vet Pathol 16:629. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Haley PJ, Spraker T, Erfle J, et al. 1983. Lymphosarcoma in an aborted equine fetus. Vet Pathol 20:647. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Seahorn TL, Carter GK. 1988. Lymphosarcoma in a foal: a case report. J Equine Vet Sci 8:317.
  6. Taylor SD, Pusterla N, Vaughan B, et al. 2006. Intestinal neoplasia in horses. J Vet Intern Med 20:1429. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Neufeld JL. 1973. Lymphosarcoma in a mare and review of cases at the Ontario Veterinary College. Can Vet J 14:149. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Rebhun WC, Del Piero F. 1998. Ocular lesions in horses with lymphosarcoma: 21 cases (1977-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:852. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Finley MR, Rebhun WC, et al. 1998. Paraneoplastic pruritus and alopecia in a horse with diffuse lymphoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:102. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Kannegieter NJ, Alley MR. 1987. Ataxia due to lymphosarcoma in a young horse. Aust Vet J 64:377. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Rousseaux CG, Doige CE, Tuddenham TJ. 1989. Epidural lymphosarcoma with myelomalacia in a seven-year-old Arabian gelding. Can Vet J 30:751. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Zeman DH, Snider TG, McClure JJ. 1989. Vertebral lymphosarcoma as the cause of hind limb paresis in a horse. J Vet Diag Invest 1:187. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Williams MA, Welles EG, Gailor RJ, et al. 1992. Lymphosarcoma associated with neurological signs and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid in two horses. Prog Vet Neurol 3:51.
  14. Lester GD, MacKay RJ, Smith-Meyer B, et al. 1992. Primary meningeal lymphoma in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:1219. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Moore BR, Weisbrode SE, Biller BS, et al. 1995. Metacarpal fracture associated with lymphosarcoma-induced osteolysis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:208. PUBMED Abstract
  16. McClure JT, Young KM, Fiste M, et al. 2001. Immunophenotypic classification of leukemia in 3 horses. J Vet Intern Med 15:144. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Schalm OW. 1981. Lymphosarcoma in the horse. Equine Pract 3:23.
  18. Madewell BR, Carlson GP, MacLachlan NJ, et al. 1982. Lymphosarcoma with leukemia in a horse. Am J Vet Res 43:807. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Allen BV, Wannop CC, Wright IM. 1984. Multicentric lymphosarcoma with lymphoblastic leukemia in a young horse. Vet Rec 115:130. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Perryman LE, Wyatt CR, Magnuson NS. 1984. Biochemical and functional characterization of lymphocytes from a horse with lymphosarcoma and IgM deficiency. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 7:43. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Zicker SC, Wilson WD, Medearis I. 1990. Differentiation between intra-abdominal neoplasms and abscesses in horses, using clinical and laboratory data: 40 cases (1973-1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:1130. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Furr MO, Crisman MV, Robertson J, et al. 1992. Immunodeficiency associated with lymphosarcoma in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:307. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Dopson LC, Reed SM, Roth JA, et al. 1983. Immunosuppression associated with lymphosarcoma in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:1239. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Marr CM, Love S, Pirie HM. 1989. Clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings in a horse with splenic lymphosarcoma and pseudohyperparathyroidism. Equine Vet J 21:221. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Asahina M, Murakami K, Ajito T, et al. 1994. An immunohistochemical study of an equine B-cell lymphoma. J Comp Pathol 111:445. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Kelley LC, Mahaffey EA. 1998. Equine malignant lymphomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical classification. Vet Pathol 35:241. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Herraez P, Berridge B, Marsh P, et al. 2001. Small intestine large granular lymphoma in a horse. Vet Pathol 38:223. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Schnabel LV, Njaa BL, Gold JR, et al. 2006. Primary alimentary lymphoma with metastasis to the liver causing encephalopathy in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 20:204. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Theon AP. 2006. Personal communication. University of California, Davis, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, Davis, CA.
  30. Mackey VS, Wheat JD. 1985. Reflections on the diagnostic approach to multicentric lymphosarcoma in an aged Arabian mare. Equine Vet J 17:467. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Platt H. 1987. Alimentary lymphomas in the horse. J Comp Pathol 97:1. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Roberts MC, Pinsent PJ. 1975. Malabsorption in the horse associated with alimentary lymphosarcoma. Equine Vet J 7:166. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Van den Hoven R, Franken P. 1983. Clinical aspects of lymphosarcoma in the horse: a clinical report of 16 cases. Equine Vet J 15:49. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Wilson RG, Sutton RH, Groenendyk S, et al. 1985. Alimentary lymphosarcoma in a horse with cutaneous manifestations. Equine Vet J 17:148. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Sweeney CR, Gillette DM. 1989. Thoracic neoplasia in equids: 35 cases (1967-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:374. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Mair TS, Brown PJ. 1993. Clinical and pathological features of thoracic neoplasia in the horse. Equine Vet J 25:220. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Mair TS, Hillyer MH. 1991. Clinical features of lymphosarcoma in the horse: 77 cases. Equine Vet Educ 4:108.
  38. Saulez MN, Schlipf JW, Cebra CK, et al. 2004. Use of chemotherapy for treatment of a mixed-cell thoracic lymphoma in a horse. J Vet Med Assoc 224:733. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Adams R, Calderwood Mays MB, et al. 1988. Malignant lymphoma in three horses with ulcerative pharyngitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:674. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Johnson PJ. 1998. Dermatologic tumors (excluding sarcoids). Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 14:625. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Gerard MP, Healy LN, Bowman KF, et al. 1998. Cutaneous lymphoma with extensive periarticular involvement in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:391. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Henson KL, Alleman AR, Cutler TJ, et al. 1998. Regression of subcutaneous lymphoma following removal of an ovarian granulose-theca cell tumor in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:1419. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Potter K, Anez D. 1998. Mycosis fungoides in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:550. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Demirer T, Dail DH, Aboulafia DM. 1994. Four varied cases of intravascular lymphomatosis and a literature review. Cancer 73:1738. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Cullen CL, Caswell J, Grahn BH. 2000. Intravascular lymphoma presenting as bilateral panophthalmitis and retinal detachment in a dog. J Am Animal Hosp Assoc 36:337. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Lapointe JM, Higgins RJ, Kortz GD, et al. 1997. Intravascular malignant T-cell lymphoma (malignant angioendotheliomatosis) in a cat. Vet Pathol 34:247. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Raidal SL, Clark P, Raidal SR. 2006. Angiotrophic T-cell lymphoma as a cause of regenerative anemia in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 20:1009. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Byrne BA, Yvorchuk-St Jean K, Couto CG, et al. 1991. Successful management of lymphoproliferative disease in two pregnant mares. Vet Cancer Soc Proc 8:9.
  49. Couto CG. 1990. Management of complication of cancer chemotherapy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 20:1037. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Gollagher RD, Ziola B, Chelack BJ, et al. 1993. Immunotherapy of equine cutaneous lymphosarcoma using low dose cyclophosphamide and autologous tumour cells infected with vaccina virus. Can Vet J 34:371. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Henson FMD, Dixon K, Dobson JM. 2004. Treatment of 4 cases of equine lymphoma with megavoltage radiation. Equine Vet Educ 40:401.
  52. Roberts MC. 1977. A case of primary lymphoid leukemia in a horse. Equine Vet J 9:216. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Newlands CM, Cole D. 1978. Monocytic leukemia in a horse. Can Vet J 36:765.
  54. Boudreaux MK, Blue JT, Durham SK, et al. 1984. Intravascular leukostasis in a horse with myelomonocytic leukemia. Vet Pathol 21:544. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Spier SJ, Madewell BR, Zinkl JG, et al. 1986. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:861. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Blue J, Perdrizet J, Brown E. 1987. Pulmonary aspergillosis in a horse with myelomonocytic leukemia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:1562. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Bernard WV, Sweeny CR, Morris F. 1988. Primary lymphocytic leukemia in a horse. Equine Pract 10:24.
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  62. Lester GD, Alleman AR, Raskin RE, et al. 1993. Pancytopenia secondary to lymphoid leukemia in three horses. J Vet Intern Med 7:360. PUBMED Abstract
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  71. Barton MH, Sharma P, LeRoy BE, et al. 2004. Hypercalcemia and high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration in a horse with multiple myeloma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:409. PUBMED Abstract
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Other Diseases of the Hemolymphatic System

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Lyme Disease

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  19. Barbour AG, Hayes SF, Heiland RA, et al. 1986. A Borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody binds to a flagellar epitope. Infect Immunol 52:549. PUBMED Abstract
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  24. Marcus LC, Patterson MM, Gilfillan RE, et al. 1985. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in New England horses: serologic survey. Am J Vet Res 46:2570. PUBMED Abstract
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  26. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. 1989. Class-specific and polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi equids. J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1365. PUBMED Abstract
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  30. Patterson WH. 1990. Lyme spirochetosis in equine: bacteriologic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in equine. ACVIM Proc 8:677.
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  32. Burgess EC, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Wright WO. 1987. Arthritis and systemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:1468. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Ryder JK. 1990. Lyme disease in dairy cattle: serologic and clinical presentations. ACVIM Proc 8:673.
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  35. Ji B, Thomas CB, Collins MT. 1994. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses the 41-kD flagellin as the antigen for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle. Am J Vet Res 55:1213. PUBMED Abstract
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  38. Philipson A. 1991. Antibiotic treatment in Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis 77:S145. PUBMED Abstract
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  41. Divers TJ. 2006. Equine Lyme disease: pathophysiology, serology, response and treatment. ACVIM Proc 24:139.
  42. Chang YF, Novosol V, McDonough SP, et al. 1999. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A (rOspA) in horses. Vaccine 18:540. PUBMED Abstract


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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection

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