Chapter 35 Diseases of the Nervous System

Cerebrospinal Fluid

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  3. Hochwald G, Wallenstein M. 1967. Exchange of γ-globulin between blood cerebrospinal fluid and brain in the cat. Exp Neurol 19:115. PUBMED Abstract
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  7. Mollanji R, Bozanovic-Sosic R, Silver I, et al. 2001. Intracranial pressure accommodation is impaired by blocking pathways leading to extracranial lymphatics. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281:R1573. PUBMED Abstract
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  10. Mayhew IG. 1975. Collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the horse. Cornell Vet 65:500. PUBMED Abstract
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  16. Boulton M, Armstrong D, Flessner M, et al. 1998. Raised intracranial pressure increases CSF drainage through arachnoid villi and extracranial lymphatics. Am J Physiol 275:R889. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Silver I, Li B, Johnston M, et al. 1999. Relationship between intracranial pressure and cervical lymphatic pressure and flow rates in sheep. Am J Physiol 277:R1712. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Sweeney CR, Russell GE. 2000. Differences in total protein concentration, nucleated cell count, and red blood cell count among sequential samples of cerebrospinal fluid from horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:54. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Kirstensen F, Firth EC. 1977. Analysis of serum proteins and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal horses using agar rose electrophoresis. Am J Vet Res 38:1089. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Hurtt AE, Smith MO. 1997. Effects of iatrogenic blood contamination on results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in clinically normal dogs and dogs with neurologic disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:866. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Mayhew IG, Whitlock RH, Tasker JB. 1977. Equine cerebrospinal fluid: reference values of normal horses. Am J Vet Res 38:1271. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Andrews FM, Geiser DR, Sommardahl CS, et al. 1994. Albumin quotient, IgG concentration, and IgG index determinations in cerebrospinal fluid of normal foals. Am J Vet Res 55:741. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Andrews FM. 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood-brain barrier function. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 20:376.
  24. Miller MM, Sweeney CR, Russell GE, et al. 1999. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on Western blot analysis for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and on albumin quotient and immunoglobulin G index in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:67. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Furr MO, Bender H. 1994. Cerebrospinal fluid variables in clinically normal foals from birth to 42 days of age. Am J Vet Res 55:781. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Stocker H, Sicher D, Rusch P, et al. 2002. Reference values in the cerebrospinal fluid of calves between four and eight weeks of age. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 144:283. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Wilson JW. 1977. Clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid creatine phosphokinase determination. J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:200. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Welles EG, Tyler JW, Sorjonen DC, et al. 1992. Composition and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult cattle. Am J Vet Res 53:2050. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Furr MO, Tyler R. 1990. Cerebrospinal fluid creatine kinase activity in horses with central nervous system disease: 69 cases (1984-1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:245. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Jackson C, de Lahunta A, Divers T, et al. 1996. The diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid creatine kinase activity in the horse. J Vet Intern Med 10:246. PUBMED Abstract

Diseases Presenting Principally with Forebrain Dysfunction or Multiple-Level Brain Dysfunction

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  3. Giltner L, Shahan M. 1933. The 1933 outbreak of infectious equine encephalomyelitis. North Am Vet 14:25.
  4. Meyer K. 1933. Equine encephalomyelitis. North Am Vet 14:30.
  5. Kubes V, Rios FA. 1939. The causative agent of infectious equine encephalomyelitis in Venezuela. Science 90:20. PUBMED Abstract
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  7. Calisher CH. 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 7:89. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, et al. 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol 49:141. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Weaver SC, Powers AM, Brault AC, et al. 1999. Molecular epidemiological studies of veterinary arboviral encephalitides. Vet J 157:123. PUBMED Abstract
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  11. Meyer KF. 1932. A summary of recent studies on equine encephalomyel(i)tis. Ann Intern Med 6:645.
  12. Hagan WAT, Bruner DW, Timoney JF. 1981. Hagan and Bruner's Microbiology and infectious diseases of domestic animals, ed 7. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
  13. Hanson RP. 1972. Virology and epidemiology of eastern and western arboviral encephalomyelitis of horses, pp 100-114. Third International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases. Karger, Basel, Paris.
  14. Karabatsos N, Lewis AL, Calisher CH, et al. 1988. Identification of Highlands J virus from a Florida horse. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39:603. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Hanson RP. 1957. An epizootic of equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in Massachusetts in 1831. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6:858. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Scott TW, Weaver SC. 1989. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus: epidemiology and evolution of mosquito transmission. Adv Virus Res 37:277. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Oglesby WT. 1948. 1947 Outbreak of infectious equine encephalomyelitis in Louisiana. J Am Vet Med Assoc 113:267. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Franklin RP, Kinde H, Jay MT, et al. 2002. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from California. Emerg Infect Dis 8:283. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Sellers RF, Bergold GH, Suarez OM, et al. 1965. Investigations during Venezuelan equine encephalitis outbreaks in Venezuela—1962-1964. Am J Trop Med Hyg 14:460. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Zehmer RB, Dean PB, Sudia WD, et al. 1974. Venezuelan equine encephalitis epidemic in Texas, 1971. Health Serv Rep 89:278. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Oberste MS, Fraire M, Navarro R, et al. 1998. Association of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE with two equine epizootics in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59:100. PUBMED Abstract
  22. White G, Ottendorfer C, Graham S, et al. 2011. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:421. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Sudia WD, Stamm DD, Chamberlain RW, et al. 1956. Transmission of eastern equine encephalitis to horses by Aedes sollicitans mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:802. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Sellers RF. 1989. Eastern equine encephalitis in Quebec and Connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind? Can J Vet Res 53:76. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Farrar MD, Miller DL, Baldwin CA, et al. 2005. Eastern equine encephalitis in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:614. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Bauer RW, Gill MS, Poston RP, et al. 2005. Naturally occurring eastern equine encephalitis in a Hampshire wether. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:281. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Ross WA, Kaneene JB. 1996. Evaluation of outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:1988. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Grady GF, Maxfield HK, Hildreth SW, et al. 1978. Eastern equine encephalitis in Massachusetts, 1957-1976. A prospective study centered upon analyses of mosquitoes. Am J Epidemiol 107:170. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Wilson JH, Rubin HL, Lane TJ, et al. 1986. A survey of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in Florida horses—prevalence, economic impact, and management practices, 1982-1983. Prev Vet Med 4:261.
  30. Przelomski MM, Orourke E, Grady GF, et al. 1988. Eastern equine encephalitis in Massachusetts—A report of 16 cases, 1970-1984. Neurology 38:736. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Vander Kelen PT, Downs JA, Stark LM, et al. 2012. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida. Int J Health Geogr 11:10. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, et al. 1994. Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex. J Virol 68:158. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Sahu SP, Alstad AD, Pedersen DD, et al. 1994. Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in horses by immunoglobulin M and G capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Vet Diagn Invest 6:34. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Miller LD, Pearson JE, Muhm RL. 1973. A comparison of clinical manifestations and pathology of the equine encephalidites: VEE, WEE, EEE. Proc Annu Meet U S Anim Health Assoc 629. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Walton TE, Holbrook FR, Bolivarraya R, et al. 1992. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and African horse sickness—current status and review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 653:217-227. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Byrne RJ. 1972. The control of Eastern and Western arboviral encephalomyelitis of horses, pp 115-123. Third International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases. Karger, Basel, Paris.
  37. Byrne RJ, Hetrick FM, Scanlon JE, et al. 1961. Observations on eastern equine encephalitis in Maryland in 1959. J Am Vet Med Assoc 139:661. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Gibbs EP. 1976. Equine viral encephalitis. Equine Vet J 8:66. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Calisher CH, Mahmud M, Elkafrawi AO, et al. 1986. Rapid and specific serodiagnosis of western equine encephalitis virus infection in horses. Am J Vet Res 47:1296. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Del Piero F, Wilkins PA, Dubovi EJ, et al. 2001. Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses. Vet Pathol 38:451. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Lyon BM. 1939. Present status of equine encephalomyelitis and its control. Cornell Vet 29:198.
  42. Julander JG, Siddharthan V, Blatt LM, et al. 2007. Effect of exogenous interferon and an interferon inducer on western equine encephalitis virus disease in a hamster model. Virology 360:454. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Briolant S, Garin D, Scaramozzino N, et al. 2004. In vitro inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination. Antiviral Res 61:111. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Larsell O, Haring CM, Meyer KF. 1934. Histological changes in the central nervous system following equine encephalomyelitis. Am J Pathol 10:361. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Hahn CN, Mayhew IG, MacKay RJ. 1999. The nervous system. In Colahan PC, Mayhew IG, Merritt AM, et al (eds), Equine medicine and surgery, ed 5. Mosby, St Louis, MO.
  46. Rusnak JM, Kortepeter MG, Hawley RJ, et al. 2004. Management guidelines for laboratory exposures to agents of bioterrorism. J Occup Environ Med 46:791. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Nolen-Walston R, Bedenice D, Rodriguez C, et al. 2007. Eastern equine encephalitis in 9 South American Camelids. J Vet Intern Med 21:846. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Barber TL, Walton TE, Lewis KJ. 1978. Efficacy of trivalent inactivated encephalomyelitis virus vaccine in horses. Am J Vet Res 39:621. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Gibbs EPJ, Wilson JH. 1988. Studies on passive immunity and the vaccination of foals against eastern equine encephalitis in Florida. In Powell DG (ed), Equine infectious diseases V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference. University of Kentucky, Lexington.
  50. Walton T, Alvarez O, Jr. 1988. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, pp 203-231. In Monath T (ed), Epidemiology and ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Miscellaneous and Foreign Emerging Viruses Causing Neurologic Signs

  1. Azuolas JK. 1998. Ross River virus disease of horses. Aust Equine Vet 16:56.
  2. Calisher CH, Walton TE. 1998. Getah virus infections, p 157. In Studdert MJ (ed), Virus infections of horses. Elsevier, New York.
  3. Hearnden MN, Kay BH. 1995. Changes in mosquito populations with expansion of the Ross River reservoir, Australia, from stage 1 to stage 2a. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11:211. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Kay BH, Hearnden MN, Oliveira NM, et al. 1996. Alphavirus infection in mosquitoes at the Ross River reservoir, north Queensland, 1990-1993. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:421. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Kumanomido T, Fukunaga Y, Ando Y, et al. 1986. Getah virus isolations from mosquitoes in an enzootic area in Japan. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 48:1135.
  6. Li XD, Qiu FX, Yang H, et al. 1992. Isolation of Getah virus from mosquitos collected on Hainan island, China, and results of a serosurvey. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23:730. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Marchette NJ, Rudnick A, Garcia R, et al. 1978. Alphaviruses in peninsular Malaysia: I. Virus isolations and animal serology. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 9:317. PUBMED Abstract
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  9. Brown CM, Timoney PJ. 1998. Getah virus infection of Indian horses. Trop Anim Health Prod 30:241. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Imagawa H, Ando Y, Kamada M, et al. 1981. Sero-epizootiological survey on Getah virus infection in light horses in Japan. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 43:797. PUBMED Abstract
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  13. Cloonan MJ, Oneill BJ, Vale TG, et al. 1982. Ross River virus activity along the south coast of New South Wales. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 60:701. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Gard GP, Marshall ID, Walker KH, et al. 1977. Association of Australian arboviruses with nervous disease in horses. Aust Vet J 53:61. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Kamada M, Kumanomido T, Wada R, et al. 1991. Intranasal infection of Getah virus in experimental horses. J Vet Med Sci 53:855. PUBMED Abstract
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  17. Kamada M, Ando Y, Fukunaga Y, et al. 1980. Equine Getah virus infection: isolation of the virus from racehorses during an enzootic in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29:984. PUBMED Abstract
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  23. Herzog S, Frese K, Richt JA, et al. 1994. A contribution to the epizootiology of Borna Disease in horses. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 81:374.
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  28. Schindler AR, Vogtlin A, Hilbe M, et al. 2007. Reverse transcription real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of Borna Disease virus in diseased hosts. Mol Cell Probes 21:47. PUBMED Abstract
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  33. Richt JA, Grabner A, Herzog S. 2000. Borna Disease in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16:579. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Ludwig H, Bode L. 2000. Borna Disease virus: new aspects on infection, disease, diagnosis and epidemiology. Rev Sci Tech 19:259. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Hallensleben W, Zocher M, Staeheli P. 1997. Borna Disease virus is not sensitive to amantadine. Arch Virol 142:2043. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Selvey LA, Wells RM, McCormack JG, et al. 1995. Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus. Med J Aust 162:642. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Young JR, Selvey CE, Symons R. 2011. Hendra virus. Med J Aust 195:250. PUBMED Abstract
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  41. Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Fogarty R, et al. 2011. Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: a comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:946. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Field H, McLaughlin A, Fitzpatrick B. 2011. Investigating the “why” and “where” of Hendra virus infection in horses. Ecohealth 7:S86.
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  45. Hinchcliff KW. 2007. Miscellaneous viral diseases, pp 233-235. In Sellon DC, Long MT (eds), Equine infectious diseases, ed 1. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  46. Lynch JA, Binnington BD, Artsob H. 1985. California serogroup virus infection in a horse with encephalitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:389. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Emmons RW, Woodie JD, Laub RL, et al. 1983. Main Drain virus as a cause of equine encephalomyelitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:555. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Campbell GL, Reeves WC, Hardy JL, et al. 1990. Distribution of neutralizing antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42:282. PUBMED Abstract
  49. McLean RG, Calisher CH, Parham GL. 1987. Isolation of Cache Valley virus and detection of antibody for selected arboviruses in Michigan horses in 1980. Am J Vet Res 48:1039. PUBMED Abstract
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West Nile and Other Flavivirus Encephalitis

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  5. Tee SY, Horadagoda N, Mogg TD. 2012. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia. Aust Vet J 90:321. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Roche S, Wicks R, Garner M, et al. 2013. Descriptive overview of the 2011 epidemic of arboviral disease in horses in Australia. Aust Vet J 91:5. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Gordon AN, Marbach CR, Oakey J, et al. 2012. Confirmed case of encephalitis caused by Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection in a horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:431. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Gatus BJ, Rose MR. 1983. Japanese-B encephalitis—epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects. J Infect 6:213. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Cantile C, Di Guardo G, Eleni C, et al. 2000. Clinical and neuropathological features of West Nile virus equine encephalomyelitis in Italy. Equine Vet J 32:31. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Petersen LR, Roehrig JT. 2001. West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 7:611. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Sotelo E, Fernandez-Pinero J, Jimenez-Clavero MA. 2012. West Nile fever/encephalitis: Re-emergence in Europe and the situation in Spain. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 30:75. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Monaco F, Savini G, Calistri P, et al. 2011. 2009 West Nile disease epidemic in Italy: first evidence of overwintering in Western Europe? Res Vet Sci 91:321. PUBMED Abstract
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  14. Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, et al. 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286:2333. PUBMED Abstract
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  18. Salazar P, Traub-Dargatz JL, Morley PS, et al. 2004. Outcome of equids with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection and factors associated with death. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:267. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Ward MP, Levy M, Thacker HL, et al. 2004. Investigation of an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus in 136 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:84. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Schuler LA, Khaitsa ML, Dyer NW, et al. 2004. Evaluation of an outbreak of West Nile virus infection in horses: 569 cases (2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:1084. PUBMED Abstract
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  22. Sejvar JJ, Leis AA, Stokic DS, et al. 2003. Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis 9:788. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Wamsley HL, Alleman AR, Porter MB, et al. 2002. Findings in cerebrospinal fluids of horses infected with West Nile virus: 30 cases (2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:1303. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Wilson JH, Davis A, Bender JB, et al. 2003. Residual effects of West Nile viral encephalomyelitis in horses. In Proceedings, Am Assoc Equine Pract 49:399.
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Trauma to the Brain and Cranial Nerves

  1. MacKay RJ. 2004. Brain injury after head trauma: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20:199. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Sinha AK, Hendrickson DA, Kannegieter NJ. 1991. Head trauma in two horses. Vet Rec 128:518. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Ruedi M, Hagen R, Luchinger U, et al. 2011. Subluxation of C2 and C3 and fracture of C2 caused by severe head trauma in two warmblood horses. Pferdeheilkunde 27:522.
  4. Stick JA, Wilson T, Kunze D. 1980. Basilar skull fractures in three horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:228. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Tietje S, Becker M, Bockenhoff G. 1996. Computed tomographic evaluation of head diseases in the horse: 15 cases. Equine Vet J 28:98. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Rullan-Mayol AJ, Gashen L, Ramirez S, et al. 2007. What is your diagnosis? J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1499. PUBMED Abstract
  7. McKelvey WA, Owen RR. 1979. Acquired torticollis in eleven horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 175:295. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Alexander K, Baird JD, Dobson H, et al. 2002. What is your diagnosis? Displaced avulsion fracture of the basisphenoid-basioccipital bone. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:297. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Darien BJ, Watrous BJ, Huber MJ, et al. 1991. What is your diagnosis? Avulsion of a portion of the attachment of the longus capitus muscle from the basisphenoid bone. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:1799. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Johnson PJ, Moore LA, Reed AL. 1996. What is your diagnosis? Trauma-induced skull fracture and bacterial meningitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:901. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Martin L, Kaswan R, Chapman W. 1986. Four cases of traumatic optic nerve blindness in the horse. Equine Vet J 18:133. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Blogg JR, Stanley RG, Phillip CJ. 1990. Skull and orbital blow-out fractures in a horse. Equine Vet J Suppl:5. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Beccati F, Angeli G, Secco I, et al. 2011. Comminuted basilar skull fracture in a colt: use of computed tomography to aid the diagnosis. Equine Vet Educ 23:327.
  14. Feary DJ, Magdesian KG, Aleman MA, et al. 2007. Traumatic brain injury in horses: 34 cases (1994-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:259. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Beccati F, Pepe M, Nannarone S, et al. 2012. Computed tomography for evaluation of some head diseases in 11 horses. Ippologia 23:3.
  16. Lischer CJ, Walliser U, Witzmann P, et al. 2005. Fracture of the paracondylar process in four horses: advantages of CT imaging. Equine Vet J 37:483. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Braun U, Schweizer G, Pospischil A. 2003. Clinical findings in four cattle with traumatic brain injury. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 31:183.
  18. Sweeney CR, Freeman DE, Sweeney RW, et al. 1993. Hemorrhage into the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) associated with rupture of the longus capitis muscle in three horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:1129. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Finnie JW, Blumbergs PC. 2002. Traumatic brain injury. Vet Pathol 39:679. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Shaw NA. 2002. The neurophysiology of concussion. Prog Neurobiol 67:281. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Zauner A, Daugherty WP, Bullock MR, et al. 2002. Brain oxygenation and energy metabolism: Part I—Biological function and pathophysiology. Neurosurgery 51:289. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Solano M, Brawer RS. 2004. CT of the equine head: technical considerations, anatomic guide, and selected diseases. Clin Tech Equine Pract 3:374.
  23. Marik PE, Varon J, Trask T. 2002. Management of head trauma. Chest 122:699. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Roberts I, Schierhout G, Alderson P. 1998. Absence of evidence for the effectiveness of five interventions routinely used in the intensive care management of severe head injury: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65:729. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Dougherty JA, Rhoney DH. 2001. Gabapentin: a unique anti-epileptic agent. Neurol Res 23:821. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Donaldson J, Borzatta MA, Matossian D. 2000. Nutrition strategies in neurotrauma. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 12:465. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Kramer J, Coates JR, Hoffman AG, et al. 2007. Preliminary anatomic investigation of three approaches to the equine cranium and brain for limited craniectomy procedures. Vet Surg 36:500. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Auer JA. 2012. Craniomaxillofacial disorders, pp 1456-1482. In Auer JA, Stick JA (eds), Equine surgery, ed 4. Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  29. McIlwraith CW. 1998. Surgical repair of depression fractures of the skull, pp 276-277. In McIlwraith CW, Robertson JT (eds), Mcilwraith & Turner's equine surgery: advanced techniques, ed 2. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
  30. Schaaf KL, Kannegieter NJ, Lovell DK. 2008. Management of equine skull fractures using fixation with polydioxanone sutures. Aust Vet J 86:481. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Muzha I, Filipi N, Lede R, et al. 2004. Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10,008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 364:1321.
  32. Heath DL, Vink R. 1999. Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288:1311. PUBMED Abstract

Traumatic Optic Nerve Blindness of Horses

  1. Martin L, Kaswan R, Chapman W. 1986. Four cases of traumatic optic nerve blindness in the horse. Equine Vet J 18:133. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Reppas GP, Hodgson DR, McClintock SA, et al. 1995. Trauma-induced blindness in two horses. Aust Vet J 72:270. PUBMED Abstract

Thiamine Deficiency of Horses

  1. Carpenter KJ, Phillipson AT, Thomson W. 1950. Experiments with dried bracken (Pteris aquilina). Br Vet J 106:292. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Cymbaluk NF, Fretz PB, Loew FM. 1978. Amprolium-induced thiamine deficiency in horses: clinical features. Am J Vet Res 39:255. PUBMED Abstract

Equine Leukoencephalomalacia

  1. Schwarte LH, Biester HE, Murray C. 1937. A disease of horses caused by feeding moldy corn. J Am Vet Med Assoc 90:76.
  2. Wilson BJ, Maronpot RR. 1971. Causative fungus agent of leucoencephalomalacia in equine animals. Vet Rec 88:484. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Morgavi DP, Riley RT. 2007. An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Anim Feed Sci Technol 137:201.
  4. Voss KA, Smith GW, Haschek WM. 2007. Fumonisins: toxicokinetics, mechanism of action and toxicity. Anim Feed Sci Technol 137:299.
  5. Giannitti F, Diab SS, Pacin AM, et al. 2011. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina. Pesqui Vet Bras 31:407.
  6. Uhlinger C. 1991. Clinical and epidemiologic features of an epizootic of equine leukoencephalomalacia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:126. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Uhlinger C. 1997. Leukoencephalomalacia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:13. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Smith GW, Constable PD, Foreman JH, et al. 2002. Cardiovascular changes associated with intravenous administration of fumonisin B1 in horses. Am J Vet Res 63:538. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Foreman JH, Constable PD, Waggoner AL, et al. 2004. Neurologic abnormalities and cerebrospinal fluid changes in horses administered fumonisin B-1 intravenously. J Vet Intern Med 18:223. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Davis RM, Kegel FR, Sills WM, et al. 1989. Fusarium ear rot of corn. California Agriculture 43:4.
  11. Brownie CF, Cullen J. 1987. Characterization of experimentally induced equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) in ponies (Equus caballus): preliminary report. Vet Hum Toxicol 29:34. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Ross PF, Ledet AE, Owens DL, et al. 1993. Experimental equine leukoencephalomalacia, toxic hepatosis, and encephalopathy caused by corn naturally contaminated with fumonisins. J Vet Diagn Invest 5:69. PUBMED Abstract

Intracarotid Drug Injection

  1. Rousseaux CG, Wenkoff M. 1984. Fatal intracarotid artery injection of chloramphenicol in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:1287. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Gabel AA, Koestner A. 1963. Effects of intracarotid artery injection of drugs in domestic animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 142:1397. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Christian RG, Mills JHL, Kramer LL. 1974. Accidental intracarotid artery injection of promazine in horse. Can Vet J 15:29. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Helper LC, Lerner D. 1980. Unilateral retinopathy and blindness in a horse following intra carotid injection of phenyl butazone. Equine Pract 2:33.
  5. Straub A. 2000. Temporary unilateral blindness in a horse following inadvertent intracarotid injection—a case report. Pferdeheilkunde 16:68.

Brain Tumors

  1. Braund KG. 1984. Neoplasia of the nervous-system. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 6:717-729.
  2. Guarda F, Biolatti B. 1987. Cerebral medulloblastoma in two calves. Summa 4:33.
  3. Hoenerhoff MJ, Janovitz E, Ramos-Vara J, et al. 2006. Choroid plexus papilloma in a Scottish Highland cow. J Comp Pathol 135:146. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Zanolari P, Botteron C, Jaggy A, et al. 2004. Chromophobe adenocarcinoma of the pituitary gland in a ram. J Vet Intern Med 18:748. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Lucas MN, Nguyen F, Abadie J, et al. 2003. Cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a heifer. J Comp Pathol 128:195. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Jolly RD, Alley MR. 1969. Medulloblastoma in calves. A report of three cases. Pathol Vet 6:463. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Saunders GK. 1984. Ependymoblastoma in a dairy calf. Vet Pathol 21:528. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Finn JP, Tennant BC. 1971. Cerebral and ocular tumor of reticular tissue in a horse. Vet Pathol 8:458.
  9. Brobst DF, Dulac GC. 1969. Meningeal tumors induced in calves with the bovine cutaneous papilloma virus. Pathol Vet 6:135. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Wright JA, Giles CJ. 1986. Diffuse carcinomatosis involving the meninges of a horse. Equine Vet J 18:147. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Hepburn RJ, Furr MO. 2004. Sinonasal adenocarcinoma causing central nervous system disease in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 18:125. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Ladd SM, Crisman MV, Duncan R, et al. 2005. Central nervous system hemangiosarcoma in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 19:914. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Hodgin EC. 1985. Meningeal hemangioma and renal hamartoma in a heifer. Vet Pathol 22:420. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Guard CL, Rebhun WC, Perdrizet JA. 1984. Cranial tumors in aged cattle causing Horner's syndrome and exophthalmos. Cornell Vet 74:361. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Neuhauser S, Palm F, Seltenhammer MH, et al. 2009. Ataxia in a late pregnant mare caused by a malignant melanoma adjacent to the brain stem. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 96:210.
  16. Shamis LD, Everitt JI, Baker GJ. 1984. Lymphosarcoma as the cause of ataxia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:1517. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Sweeney RW, Divers TJ, Ziemer E, et al. 1986. Intracranial lymphosarcoma in a Holstein bull. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:555. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Davis JL, Gilger BC, Spaulding K, et al. 2002. Nasal adenocarcinoma with diffuse metastases involving the orbit, cerebrum, and multiple cranial nerves in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:1460. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Baloh RW, Konrad HR, Dirks D, et al. 1976. Cerebellar-pontine angle tumors. Results of quantitative vestibulo-ocular testing. Arch Neurol 33:507. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Covington AL, Magdesian KG, Madigan JE, et al. 2004. Recurrent esophageal obstruction and dysphagia due to a brainstem melanoma in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 18:245. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Chaffin MK, Walker MA, McArthur NH, et al. 1997. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of normal neonatal foals. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38:102. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Vazquez JM, Rivero M, Gil F, et al. 2001. Magnetic resonance imaging of two normal equine brains and their associated structures. Vet Rec 148:229. PUBMED Abstract

Cholinesteric Granuloma Encephalopathy

  1. Maxie MG. 2007. Degeneration in the nervous system, pp 345-393. In Maxie MG (ed), Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's pathology of domestic animals, ed 5.Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  2. Tofflemire KL, Whitley RD, Wong DM, et al. 2013. Episodic blindness and ataxia in a horse with cholesterinic granulomas. Vet Ophthalmol 16:149. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Vanschandevijl K, Gielen I, Nollet H, et al. 2008. Computed tomography-guided brain biopsy for in vivo diagnosis of a cholesterinic granuloma in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:950. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Maulet BEB, Bestbier M, Jose-Cunilleras E, et al. 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cholesterol granuloma and hydrocephalus in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 20:74.
  5. Finding E, Fletcher N, Avella C, et al. 2012. Standing CT and clinical progression of equine cholesterol granulomata. Vet Rec 170:289. PUBMED Abstract


  1. Lacombe VA, Mayes M, Mosseri S, et al. 2012. Epilepsy in horses: aetiological classification and predictive factors. Equine Vet J 44:646. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Mayhew IG. 2008. Seizures and epilepsy, pp 83-86. Large animal neurology, ed 2. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
  3. Aleman M, Gray LC, Williams DC, et al. 2006. Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Egyptian Arabian foals: 22 cases (1985-2005). J Vet Intern Med 20:1443. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Fanelli HH. 2005. Coat colour dilution lethal (“lavender foal syndrome”): a tetany syndrome of Arabian foals. Equine Vet Educ 17:260.
  5. Fournier D, Keppie N, Simko E. 2004. Bovine familial convulsions and ataxia in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Can Vet J 45:845. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Atkeson FW, Ibsen HL, Eldridge F. 1944. Inheritance of an epileptic type character in Brown Swiss cattle. J Hered 35:45.
  7. van der Ree M, Wijnberg I. 2012. A review on epilepsy in the horse and the potential of ambulatory EEG as a diagnostic tool. Vet Q 32:159. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Olcott BM, Strain GM, Kreeger JM. 1987. Diagnosis of partial epilepsy in a goat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:837. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Strain GM, Olcott BM, Turk MA. 1987. Diagnosis of primary generalized epilepsy in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:833. PUBMED Abstract


  1. Hines MT. 2005. Narcolepsy: more common than you might think. Proceeding of the NAVC 189.
  2. Mayhew IG. Sleep attacks. Proceeding of the NAVC 2003;174.
  3. Hara J, Sakurai T. 2011. Interaction between sleep mechanisms and orexin neurons. Sleep Biol Rhythms 9:38.
  4. Ludvikova E, Nishino S, Sakai N, et al. 2012. Familial narcolepsy in the Lipizzaner horse: a report of three fillies born to the same sire. Vet Q 32:99. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Strain GM, Olcott BM, Archer RM, et al. 1984. Narcolepsy in a Brahman bull. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:538. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Lunn DP, Cuddon PA, Shaftoe S, et al. 1993. Familial occurrence of narcolepsy in Miniature Horses. Equine Vet J 25:483. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Peck KE, Hines MT, Mealey KL, et al. 2001. Pharmacokinetics of imipramine in narcoleptic horses. Am J Vet Res 62:783. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Moore LA, Johnson PJ. 2000. Narcolepsy in horses. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 22:86.
  9. Palmer AC, Smith GF, Turner SJ. 1980. Cataplexy in a Guernsey bull. Vet Rec 106:421. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Pichon S. 2011. Narcolepsy in a south German cart horse mare—a case report. Prakt Tierarzt 92:496.
  11. Sweeney CR, Hendricks JC, Beech J, et al. 1983. Narcolepsy in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:126. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Vannieuwstadt RA, Vanderwant CJ, Binkhorst GJ. 1993. Narcolepsy in the horse. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 118:765. PUBMED Abstract
  13. White EC, De Lahunta A. 2001. Narcolepsy in a ram lamb. Vet Rec 149:156. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Toth B, Aleman M, Brosnan RJ, et al. 2012. Evaluation of squeeze-induced somnolence in neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 73:1881. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Ripley B, Fujiki N, Okura M, et al. 2001. Hypocretin levels in sporadic and familial cases of canine narcolepsy. Neurobiol Dis 8:525. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Ripley B, et al. 2002. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol 59:1553. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Bathen-Nothen A, Heider C, Fernandez AJ, et al. 2009. Hypocretin measurement in an Icelandic foal with narcolepsy. J Vet Intern Med 23:1299. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Morrison I, Riha RL. 2012. Excessive daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy—an approach to investigation and management. Eur J Intern Med 23:110. PUBMED Abstract

Headshaking in Horses

  1. Lane JG, Mair TS. 1987. Observations on headshaking in the horse. Equine Vet J 19:331. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Madigan JE, Kortz G, Murphy C, et al. 1995. Photic headshaking in the horse—7 cases. Equine Vet J 27:306. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Madigan JE, Bell SA. 2001. Owner survey of headshaking in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:334. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Taylor KD, Cook S, Mills DS. 2001. A case-controlled study investigating health, management and behavioural features of horses commonly described as headshakers. Ippologia 12:29.
  5. Schule E, Herling A. 2006. Headshaking—a review. Pferdeheilkunde 22:281.
  6. Mills DS, Cook S, Taylor K, et al. 2002. Analysis of the variations in clinical signs shown by 254 cases of equine headshaking. Vet Rec 150:236. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Lischer CJ, Walliser U, Witzmann P, et al. 2005. Fracture of the paracondylar process in four horses: advantages of CT imaging. Equine Vet J 37:483. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Fiske-Jackson AR, Pollock PJ, Witte TH, et al. 2012. Fungal sinusitis resulting in suspected trigeminal neuropathy as a cause of headshaking in five horses. Equine Vet Educ 24:126.
  9. Berger JM, Bell SA, Holmberg BJ, et al. 2008. Successful treatment of head shaking by use of infrared diode laser deflation and coagulation of corpora nigra cysts and behavioral modification in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1610. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Houpt KA, Mills DS. 2006. Why horse behaviour is important to the equine clinician. Equine Vet J 38:386. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Aleman M, Pickles KJ, Simonek G, et al. 2012. Latent equine herpesvirus-1 in trigeminal ganglia and equine idiopathic headshaking. J Vet Intern Med 26:192. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Mair TS. 1999. Assessment of bilateral infra-orbital nerve blockade and bilateral infra-orbital neurectomy in the investigation and treatment of idiopathic headshaking. Equine Vet J 31:262. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Roberts VLH, Perkins JD, Skarlina E, et al. 2013. Caudal anaesthesia of the infraorbital nerve for diagnosis of idiopathic headshaking and caudal compression of the infraorbital nerve for its treatment, in 58 horses. Equine Vet J 45:107. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Roberts VLH, McKane SA, Williams A, et al. 2009. Caudal compression of the infraorbital nerve: a novel surgical technique for treatment of idiopathic headshaking and assessment of its efficacy in 24 horses. Equine Vet J 41:165. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Madigan JP. 2009. Head shaking in horses, pp 1044-1045. In Smith BP (ed), Large animal internal medicine. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  16. Mills DS, Taylor K. 2003. Field study of the efficacy of three types of nose net for the treatment of headshaking in horses. Vet Rec 152:41. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Cook WR. 2003. Bit-induced pain: a cause of fear, flight, fight and facial neuralgia in the horse. Pferdeheilkunde 19:75.
  18. Mair TS, Howarth S, Lane JG. 1992. Evaluation of some prophylactic therapies for the idiopathic headshaker syndrome. Equine Vet J (Suppl):10. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Mills DS, Cook S, Jones B. 2002. Reported response to treatment among 245 cases of equine headshaking. Vet Rec 150:311. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Newton SA. 2005. Idiopathic headshaking in horses. Equine Vet Educ 17:83.
  21. Uhlendorf F, Muller JMV, Winter JC, et al. 2011. Treatment of idiopathic headshaking with an injection of glycerol into the trigeminal ganglion in a 5 year old warmblood mare. Pferdeheilkunde 27:585.

Maedi-Visna Virus Infection (Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Infection; Zwoegerziekte)

  1. Sigurdsson B, Palsson PA, Grimmson H. 1957. Visna, a demyelinating, transmissible disease of sheep. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 16:389. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Gudnadottir M, Palsson PA. 1976. Successful transmission of visna by intrapulmonary inoculation. J Infect Dis 115:217. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Sigurdsson B, Palsson PA, Von Bogaert L. 1960. Cultivation of visna virus in tissue culture. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 10:368.
  4. Gudnadottir M, Palsson PA. 1965. Host virus interaction in visna-infected sheep. J Immunol 95:1116. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Dawson M. 1988. Lentivirus diseases of domesticated animals. J Comp Pathol 99:401. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Rowe JD, East NE. 1997. Risk factors for transmission and methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 13:1. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Gjerset B, Jonassen CM, Rimstadt E. 2007. Natural transmission and comparative analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses in the Norwegian sheep and goat populations. Virus Res 125:153. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Pisoni G, Bertoni G, Puricelli M, et al. 2007. Demonstration of coinfection with and recombination by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and maedi-visna virus in naturally infected goats. J Virol 81:4948. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Pepin M, Vitu C, Russo P, et al. 1998. Maedi-visna virus infection in sheep: a review. Vet Res 29:341. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Benavides J, Garcia-Pariente C, Ferreras MC, et al. 2007. Diagnosis of clinical cases of the nervous form of Maedi-Visna in 4- and 6-month-old lambs. Vet Rec 174:655. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Benavides J, Fuertes M, Garcia-Pariente C, et al. 2006. Natural cases of visna in sheep with myelitis as the sole lesion in the central nervous system. J Comp Pathol 134:219. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Molitor T, Schipper IA, Berryhill DL. 1979. Evaluation of the agar gel immunodiffusion test for the detection of precipitating antibodies against progressive pneumonia virus of sheep. Can J Comp Med 43:280. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Cutlip RA, Jackson TA, Laird GA. 1977. Immunodiffusion test for ovine progressive pneumonia. Am J Vet Res 38:1081. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Griffin DE, Naravan O, Bukowski JF, et al. 1978. The cerebrospinal fluid in visna, a slow viral disease of sheep. Ann Neurol 4:212. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Narayan O, Griffin DE, Silverstein AM. 1977. Slow virus infection: replication and mechanisms of persistence of visna virus in sheep. J Infect Dis 135:800. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Nathanson N, Panitch H, Palsson PA, et al. 1976. Pathogenesis of visna. II. Effect of immunosuppression upon early central nervous system lesions. Lab Invest 35:444. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Haase AT, Varmus HE. 1973. Demonstration of a DNA provirus in the lytic growth of visna virus. Nature (New Biol) 245:237. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Summers BA, Cummings JF, De Lahunta A. 1995. Vet Neuropathol Mosby, St Louis, MO. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Georgsson G, Petursson G, Miller A, et al. 1978. Experimental visna in foetal Icelandic sheep. J Comp Pathol 88:597. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Sigurdsson B, Palsson PA, Van Bogaert L. 1962. Pathology of visna: transmissible demyelinating disease in sheep in Iceland. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1:343.
  21. Haase AT, Stowring L, Narayan P, et al. 1977. Slow persistent infection caused by visna virus: role of host restriction. Science 195:175. PUBMED Abstract
  22. De Andres D, Klein D, Watt NJ, et al. 2005. Diagnostic tests for small ruminant lentiviruses. Vet Microbiol 107:49. PUBMED Abstract

Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Infection (Infectious Leukoencephalomyelitis)

  1. Brülisauer F, Vogt HR, Perler L, et al. 2005. Risk factors for the infection of Swiss goat herds with small ruminant lentivirus: a case-control study. Vet Rec 157:229. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Norman S, Smith MC. 1983. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: review of the neurologic form in 30 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:1342. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Stavrou D, Deutschlander N, Dahme E. 1969. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis in goats. J Comp Pathol 79:393. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Dahme E, Stavrou D, Deutschlander N, et al. 1973. Klinik und pathologie einer ubertragbaren granulomatosen meningoencephalomyelitis (MEM) bei der hausziege. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 23:59. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Cork LC, Hadlow WJ, Crawford TB. 1974. Infectious leukoencephalomyelitis of young goats. J Infect Dis 129:131. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Thomson RG. 1981. Viral leukoencephalomyelitis arthritis of goats. Can Vet J 22:358. PUBMED Abstract
  7. O'Sullivan BM, Eaves FW, Baxendell SA, et al. 1978. Leucoencephalomyelitis of goat kids. Aust Vet J 54:479. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Wilkie IW. 1980. Leukomyelitis in the goat: a report of three cases. Can Vet J 21:203. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Summers BA, Appel MJG, Griesen HA. 1980. Studies of viral leukoencephalomyelitis and swayback in goats. Cornell Vet 70:372. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Crawford TB, Adams DS. 1981. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: clinical features and presence of antibody in selected goat populations. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:713. PUBMED Abstract
  11. De Andres D, Klein D, Watt NJ, et al. 2005. Diagnostic tests for small ruminant lentiviruses. Vet Microbiol 107:49. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Konishi M, Tsuduku S, Haritani M, et al. 2004. An epidemic of caprine arthritis encephalitis in Japan: isolation of the virus. J Vet Med Sci 66:911. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Cork LC. 1976. Differential diagnosis of viral leukoencephalomyelitis of goats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:1303. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Cork LC, Narayan O. 1980. The pathogenesis of viral leukoencephalomyelitis-arthritis of goats. I. Persistent viral infection with progressive pathologic changes. Lab Invest 42:596. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Cork LC, Hadow WJ, Gorham JR, et al. 1974. Pathology of viral leukoencephalomyelitis of goats. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 29:281. PUBMED Abstract

Border Disease (Hairy Shaker Lambs; Hypomyelogenesis Congenita)

  1. Mathews REF. 1979. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Intervirology 12:132.
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  3. Plant JW, Acland HM, Gard GP. 1976. A mucosal disease virus as a cause of abortion, hairy birth coat, and unthriftiness in sheep. I. Infection of pregnant ewes and observations on aborted fetuses and lambs dying before 1 week of age. Aust Vet J 52:57.
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Encephalitic Bovine Herpesvirus Infection

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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (“Mad Cow” Disease)

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Pseudorabies (Aujeszky Disease, Mad Itch, Bulbar Paralysis)

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Ovine Encephalomyelitis (Louping Ill)

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  22. Doherty PC, Reid HW. 1971. Experimental louping ill in sheep and lambs. II. Neuropathology. J Comp Pathol 81:331. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Krueger N, Reid HW. 1994. Detection of louping ill virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax–embedded tissues of mice, sheep and a pig by the avidin-biotin-complex immunoperoxidase technique. Vet Rec 135:224. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Marriott L, Willoughby K, Chianini F, et al. 2006. Detection of louping ill virus in clinical specimens from mammals and birds using TaqMan RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 137:21. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Brotherson JG, Bannatyne C, Mathieson AO, et al. 1971. Field trials of an inactivated oil-adjuvant vaccine against louping ill (arbovirus group B). J Hyg (Cambridge) 69:479. PUBMED Abstract


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  8. Ferris DH, Badiali L, Abou-Yousef M, et al. 1968. A note on experimental rabies in the donkey. Cornell Vet 58:270. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Owen RR. 1978. Rabies in the horse. Vet Rec 191:69. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Glaes AM. 1974. Rabies in the equine. Southwest Vet 283.
  11. Green SL. 1993. Equine rabies. Vet Clin North Am 9:337. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Trimarch CV, Nadin-Davis SA. 2007. Post mortem diagnosis of rabies in animals, p 413. In Jackson AC, Wunner WH (eds), Rabies, ed 2. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
  13. O'Toole D, Mills K, Ellis J, et al. 1993. Poliomyelomalacia and ganglioneuritis in a horse with paralytic rabies. J Vet Diagn Invest 5:95. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Lentz T. 1991. Structure-function relationships of curaremimetic neurotoxin loop 2 and of a structurally similar segment of rabies virus glycoprotein in their interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry 30:10949. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Wiltzer L, Larrous F, Oksayan S, et al. 2012. Conservation of a unique mechanism of immune evasion across the Lyssavirus genus. J Viorol 86:10194. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Fischman HR, Ward FE. 1968. Oral transmission of rabies virus in experimental animals. Am J Epidemiol 88:132. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Pablo Correa-Giron E, Allen R, Sulkin SE. 1970. The infectivity and pathogenesis of rabies virus administered orally. Am J Epidemiol 91:203. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Baer GM, Adams DB. 1970. Rabies in insectivorous bats in the United States, 1953-1965. Public Health Rep 85:637. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Constantine DG. 1966. Transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates: bite transmission of rabies to foxes and coyote by free-tailed bats. Am J Vet Res 27:20. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Childs JE, Real LA. 2007. Epidemiology, p 123. In Jackson AC, Wunner WH (ed), Rabies, ed 2. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
  21. Steck F, Wandeler A. 1980. The epidemiology of fox rabies in Europe. Epidemiol Rev 2:71. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Centers for Disease Control Control and Prevention, 2011. 2007 Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2011, National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV). MMWR Recomm Rep 6056:1. [WWW page]., accessed Dec 19, 2013.
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  24. Brochier BM, Languet B, Blancou J, et al. 1988. Use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies virus for oral vaccination of fox cubs (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies. Vet Microbiol 18:103. PUBMED Abstract

Sporadic Bovine Encephalomyelitis (Buss Disease; Polyserositis; Chlamydophila pecorum Infection)

  1. Mohamad KY, Rodolakis A. 2010. Recent advances in the understanding of Chlamydophila pecorum infections, sixteen years after it was named as the fourth species of the Chlamydiaceae family. Vet Res 41:27. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Stearns TW, McNutt SH. 1942. Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis: filtration of the causal agent. Am J Vet Res 3:253.
  3. Egan AN. 1960. The occurrence of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis in Australia. Aust Vet J 36:444.
  4. French EL, Snowden W. 1960. The occurrence of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis in Australia. Aust Vet J 36:444.
  5. Harding WB. 1963. Transmissible serositis and its relationship to sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis. Aust Vet J 39:333.
  6. Harshfield GS. 1970. Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 156:466. PUBMED Abstract

Meningitis (Suppurative Meningitis; Bacterial Meningitis)

  1. Mitchell E, Furr MO, McKenzie HC. 2007. Antimicrobial therapy for bacterial meningitis. Equine Vet Educ 19:316.
  2. Green SL. 1992. Meningitis in neonatal calves: 32 cases (1983-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:125. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Fecteau G, Smith BP, George LW. 2009. Septicemia and meningitis in the newborn calf. Vet Clin N Am Food Anim Pract 25:195. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Pellegrini-Masini A, Bentz AI, Johns IC, et al. 2005. Common variable immunodeficiency in three horses with presumptive bacterial meningitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:114. PUBMED Abstract
  5. James F, Engiles JB, Beech J. 2010. Meningitis, cranial neuritis and radiculoneuritis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:1180. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Fjeldborg J, Andresen PH, Svalastoga E. 1997. Osteomyelitis secondary to basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred foal. Equine Pract 19:29.
  7. Atherton RP, Mitchell EV, McKenzie HC, et al. 2007. Traumatic fracture of the basisphenoid and secondary bacterial meningitis in a Thoroughbred gelding. Equine Vet Educ 19:359.
  8. Van Metre DC, Barrington GM, Parish SM, et al. 1991. Otitis media-interna and meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Listeria monocytogenes in a llama. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:236. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Thompson KG, Bateman RS, Morris PJ. 2005. Cerebral infarction and meningoencephalitis following hot-iron disbudding of goat kids. N Z Vet J 53:368. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Smith JJ, Provost PJ, Paradis MR. 2004. Bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses secondary to infectious disease processes involving the head in horses: seven cases (1980-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:739. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Van de Beek D, Brouer MC, Tunkel AR. 2012. Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis. Lancet 380:1693. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Jamison JM, JF Prescott. 1987. Bacterial meningitis in large animals. I. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 9:3996.
  13. Auburtin M, Wolff M, Charpentier J, et al. 2006. Detrimental role of delayed antibiotic administration and penicillin-nonsusceptible strains in adult intensive care unit patients with pneumococcal meningitis: the PNEUMOREA prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med 34:2758. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Morris DD. 1984. Bacterial infections of the newborn foal. II. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 6(suppl):436.
  15. Spehar AM, Hill MR, Mayhew IG, et al. 1984. Preliminary study on the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in the neonatal foal. Equine Vet J 16:368. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Ravis WR, Pedersoli WM, Schumacher J. 1987. A pharmacokinetic study of phenobarbital in mature horses after oral dosing. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 10:283. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Duran SH, Ravis WR, Pedersoli WM, et al. 1987. Pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in the horse. Am J Vet Res 48:807. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Kowalczyk DF, Beech J. 1983. Pharmacokinetics of phenytoin (diphenyl-hydantoin) in horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 6:133. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Viu J, Monreal L, Jose-Cunilleras E, et al. 2012. Clinical findings in 10 foals with bacterial meningoencephalitis. Equine Vet J 44:100. PUBMED Abstract

Pituitary Abscesses

  1. Perdrizet JA, Dinsmore P. 1986. Pituitary abscess syndrome. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 8(Suppl):311.
  2. Perl SH, Niska A, Tromp A. 1978. Abscess in the hypophysis of a cow. Refuah Vet 35:175.
  3. Moriwaki M, Watase H, Fukumoto M, et al. 1973. Exophthalmos due to rete mirabile abscesses caused by infection with Corynebacterium pyogenes in cattle. Natl Inst Anim Health Q 13:14. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Espersen G. 1975. Hypofyseabsces-syndrom hos dvaeg I, Kliniske undersogelseer. Nord Vet Med 27:465. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Taylor PA, Meads EB. 1963. Pituitary abscessation and a “farcy like” condition in cattle due to Corynebacterium pyogenes. Can Vet J 4:208. PUBMED Abstract

Brain Abscesses

  1. Raphel CF. 1982. Brain abscess in three horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:874. PUBMED Abstract
  2. McCormack JE. 1973. Papilledema related to left cerebral hemisphere abscess in a heifer. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 68:1249. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Allen JR, Barbec DD, Boulton CR. 1987. Brain abscess in a horse: diagnosis by computerized axial tomography and successful surgical treatment. Equine Vet J 19:552. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Tsuka T, Taura Y. 1999. Abscess of bovine brainstem diagnosed by contrast MRI examinations. J Vet Med Sci 61:425. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Hanche-Olsen S, Ottensen N, Larsen H, et al. 2012. Brain abscess in a filly: a case report. J Equine Vet Sci 32:1.
  6. Scott PR. 2004. Diagnostic techniques and clinicopathologic findings in ruminant neurologic disease. Vet Clin Food Anim 20:215. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Allen JR, Barbec DD, Boulton CR. 1987. Brain abscess in a horse: diagnosis by computerized axial tomography and successful surgical treatment. Equine Vet J 19:552. PUBMED Abstract

Nervous Coccidiosis

  1. Eness P, Owen W. 1984. Bovine coccidiosis survey results. Iowa State University Newsletter: Ames, IA.
  2. Isler CM, Bellamy JEC, Wobeser GA. 1987. Labile neurotoxin in serum of calves with nervous coccidiosis. Can J Vet Res 51:253.
  3. Nillo L. 1970. Bovine coccidiosis in Canada. Can Vet J 11:91. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Julian RJ, Harrison KB, Richardson JA. 1976. Nervous signs in bovine coccidiosis. Mod Vet Pract 57:711. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Fanelli HH. 1983. Observations on nervous coccidiosis in calves. Bovine Pract 18:50.
  6. Clayburg J. 1970. Neurological signs seen in coccidial infections. Iowa State Vet 2:85.
  7. Tubb TF. 1988. Nervous disease associated with coccidiosis in young cattle. Aust Vet J 65:353. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Radostits OM, Stockdale PHG. 1980. A brief review of coccidiosis in western Canada. Can Vet J 21:227. PUBMED Abstract

Sporozoan Infections of Ruminants (Sarcocystis Infection)

  1. Fayer R, Dubey JP. 1986. Bovine sarcocystosis. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 8:F130.
  2. Dubey JP, Fayer R. 1983. Sarcocystosis. Br Vet J 139:371. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Dubey JP. 1988. Lesions in sheep inoculated with Sarcocystis tenella sporocysts from canine feces. Vet Pathol 26:237. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Jolley WR, et al. 1983. Encephalitic sarcocystosis in a newborn calf. Am J Vet Res 44:1908. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Dubey JP, Perry A, Kennedy MJ. 1987. Encephalitis caused by a Sarcocystis-like organism in a steer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:231. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Fayer R, Johnson AJ, Lunde M. 1976. Abortion and other signs of disease in cows experimentally infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis from dogs. J Infect Dis 134:624. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Fayer R, Prasse KW. 1981. Hematology of experimental acute Sarcocystis bovicanis infection in calves. I. Cellular and serologic changes. Vet Pathol 18:351. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Lunde MN, Fayer R. 1977. Serologic tests for antibody to Sarcocystis in cattle. J Parasitol 63:222. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Fayer R, Lunde MN. 1977. Changes in serum and plasma proteins and in IgG and IgM antibodies in calves experimentally infected with Sarcocystis from dogs. J Parasitol 63:438. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Gasbarre LC, Fayer R. 1984. Humoral and cellular immune responses in cattle and sheep inoculated with Sarcocystis. Am J Vet Res 45:1592. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Dubey JP, Fayer R. 1987. Sarcocystosis: present and future. J Vet Parasitol 1:1.
  12. Dubey JP, Speer CA, Douglass TG. 1973. Development and ultrastructure of first-generation meronts of Sarcocystis cruzi in calves fed sporocysts from dogs. J Parasitol 59:1135. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Pacheco ND, Sheffield HG, Fayer R. 1978. Fine structure of immature cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi. J Parasitol 64:320. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Leek RG, Fayer R. 1983. Experimental Sarcocystis ovicanus infection in lambs, salinomycin chemoprophylaxis, and protective immunity. J Parasitol 69:271. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Fayer R, Johnson AJ. 1975. Effect of amprolium on acute sarcocystosis in experimentally infected calves. J Parasitol 61:932. PUBMED Abstract

Neospora Infection of Cattle (Protozoal Abortion)

  1. Anderson M, Picanso J, Thurmond M, et al. 1991. Bovine protozoal abortions in California. Bovine Pract 26:102.
  2. Anderson ML, Blanchard PC, Barr BC, et al. 1991. Neospora-like protozoan infection as a major cause of abortion in California dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:241. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Barr BC, Anderson ML, Blanchard BC, et al. 1990. Bovine fetal encephalitis and myocarditis associated with protozoal infections. Vet Pathol 27:354.
  4. Barr BC. 1991. Neospora-like encephalomyelitis in a calf: pathology, ultrastructure, and immunoreactivity. J Vet Diagn Invest 3:39. PUBMED Abstract
  5. O'Toole D, Jeffrey M. 1987. Congenital sporozoan encephalomyelitis in a calf. Vet Rec 121:563. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Conrad PA, Barr BC, Sverlow KW, et al. 1993. In vitro isolation and characterization of a Neospora sp. from aborted bovine foetuses. Parasitology 106:239. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Parish SM, Maag-Miller, Besser TE, et al. 1987. Myelitis associated with protozoal infection in newborn calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:1599. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Hartley WJ, Bridge PS. 1975. A case of suspected congenital Toxoplasma encephalomyelitis in a lamb associated with a spinal cord anomaly. Br Vet J 131:380. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Dubey JP, Hartley WJ, Lindsay DS, et al. 1990. Fatal congenital Neospora caninum infection in a lamb. J Parasitol 76:127. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Dubey JP, Acland H, Hamiir AN. 1992. Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa) in a stillborn goat. J Parasitol 78:532. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Corbellini LG, Colodel EM, Driemeier D. 2001. Granulomatous encephalitis in a neurologically impaired goat kid associated with degeneration of Neospora caninum tissue cysts. J Vet Diagn Invest 13:416. PUBMED Abstract

Babesia Encephalitis (Babesiosis; Piroplasmosis; Texas Cattle Fever; Tick Fever; Redwater)

  1. Bock R, Jackson L, De Vos A, et al. 2004. Babesiosis of cattle. Parasitology 129(suppl):S247. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Rogers RJ. 1971. Observations on the pathology of Babesia argentina infections in cattle. Aust Vet J 47:242. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Yeruham I, Avidar Y, Aroch I, et al. 2003. Intra-uterine infection with Babesia bovis in a 2-day-old calf. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50:60. PUBMED Abstract
  4. O'Connor RM, Long JA, Allred DR. 1999. Cytoadherence of Babesia bovis—infected erythrocytes to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells provides an in vitro model for sequestration. Infect Immun 67:3921.
  5. Hadani A, Guglielmone AA, Gonzalez de Rios L, et al. 1982. Use of cerebellar brain smears in the diagnosis of babesiosis (Babesia bovis) in cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 14:242. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Dalgliesh RJ, et al. 1976. Babesia argentina: disseminated intravascular coagulation in acute infections in splenectomized calves. Exp Parasitol 40:124. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Wright IG. 1972. An electron microscopic study of intravascular agglutination in the cerebral cortex due to Babesia argentina. Int J Parasitol 2:209. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Mahoney DF, Goodger BV. 1969. Babesia argentina: serum changes in infected calves. Exp Parasitol 24:375. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Patarroyo JH, Vargas MI, Bicudo PL. 1982. Description of lesions in cattle in a natural outbreak of Babesia bovis infection in Brazil. Vet Parasitol 11:301. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Yeruham I, Hadani A, Galker F, et al. 1998. Clinical, clinico-pathological and serological studies of Babesia ovis in experimentally infected sheep. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 45:385. PUBMED Abstract

Ehrlichia (Cowdria, Rickettsia) ruminantium Infection (Heartwater Disease)

  1. Cowdry EV.1925. Studies on the etiology of heart water. I. Observation of a rickettsia, Rickettsia ruminantium (n. sp.), in the tissues of infected animals. J Exp Med 42:231.
  2. Camus E, Barre N. 1987. Epidemiology of heart water in Guadeloupe and in the Caribbean. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 54:419.
  3. Cowdry EV. 1925. Studies on the etiology of heart water. II. Rickettsia (n. sp.) in the tissues of ticks transmitting the disease. J Exp Med 42:253. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Wesonga FD, Mukolwe SW, Grootenhuis J. 2001. Transmission of Cowdria ruminantium by Amblyomma gemma from infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and eland (Taurotragus oryx) to sheep. Trop Anim Health Prod 33:379. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Bezuidenhout JD, Jacobsz CJ. 1986. Proof of transovarial transmission of Cowdria ruminantium by Amblyomma hebraeum. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 53:31. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Kocan KM, Morzaria SP, Voigt WP, et al. 1987. Demonstration of colonies of Cowdria ruminantium in midgut epithelial cells of Amblyomma variegatum. Am J Vet Res 48:356. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Bryson NR, Horak IG, Venter EH, et al. 2002. The prevalence of Cowdria ruminantium in free-living adult Amblyomma hebraeum collected at a communal grazing area and in 2 wildlife reserves in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 73:131. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Neitz WO. 1939. The immunity in heartwater. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Ind 13:245.
  9. Du Pleiss JL. 1975. Electron microscopy of Cowdria ruminantium–reticuloendothelial cells of the mammalian host. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 42:1. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Pienaar JG. 1970. Electron microscopy of Cowdria (Rickettsia) ruminantium (Cowdry, 1926) in the endothelial cells of the vertebrate host. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 37:67. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Du Pleissis JL. 1970. Pathogenesis of heartwater. Cowdria ruminantium in the lymph nodes of domestic ruminants. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 37:89. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Norval RAI, Andrew HR, Yunker C, et al. 1992. Biological processes in the epidemiology of heartwater. In Fivaz B, ed. Tick vector biology: medical and veterinary aspects. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  13. Andrew HR, Norval RA. 1989. The carrier status of sheep, cattle, and African buffalo recovered from heartwater. Vet Parasitol 34:261. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Barre N, Camus E, Iemvt-Craag BP. 1987. The reservoir status of goats recovered from heartwater. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 54:435. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Schreuder BEC. 1980. A simple technique for the collection of brain samples for the diagnosis of heartwater. Trop Anim Health Prod 12:25. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Johnston LAY, Callow LL. 1963. Intracerebral inoculation and brain biopsy in cattle. Aust Vet J 39:22.
  17. Synge BA. 1978. Brain biopsy for the diagnosis of heartwater. Trop Anim Health Prod 10:45. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Malika J, Lawrence JA, Whiteland AP, et al. 1992. A simple method for collection of brain samples for the diagnosis of heartwater. Bull Animal Health Prod Afr 40:157.
  19. Burdin ML. 1962. Selective staining of Rickettsia ruminantium in tissue sections. Vet Rec 74:1371.
  20. Purchase HS. 1945. A simple and rapid method for demonstrating Rickettsia ruminantium (Cowdry, 1925) in heartwater brains. Vet Rec 36:413.
  21. Semu SM, Mahan SM, Yunker C, et al. 1992. Development and persistence of Cowdria ruminantium–specific antibodies following experimental infection in cattle as detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 333:339.
  22. Mahan SM, Waghela SD, McGuire TC, et al. 1992. A cloned DNA probe for Cowdria ruminantium hybridizes with eight heartwater strains and detects infected sheep. J Clin Microbiol 30:981. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Bell-Sakyi L, Koney EBM, Dogbey O, et al. 2003. Detection by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium in field sera collected from sheep and cattle in Ghana. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:917. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Simbi BH, Peter TF, Burridge MJ, et al. 2003. Comparing the detection of exposure to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection on a heartwater-endemic farm by the pCS20 polymerase chain reaction assay and an indirect MAP1-B enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 70:231. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Uilenberg G. 1983. Heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection): current status. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 27:427. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Gueye A, Vassilaides G. 1985. Traitment et perspectives de chimioprophylaxie de la codriose ovine pare une oxytetracycline a longue duree. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 38:428. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Spickett AM, Fivaz BH. 1992. A survey of small stock tick control practices in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 59:197. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Erasmus JA. 1976. Heartwater: the immunization of Angora goats. J S Afr Vet Med Assoc 47:143. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Duplessis JL, Potgieter FT, Van Gas L. 1990. An attempt to improve the immunization of sheep against heartwater by using different combinations of three stocks of Cowdria ruminantium. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 57:205. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Brown CC, Logan LL, Mebus CA, et al. 1989. Protection of goats against Caribbean and African heartwater isolates by the ball 3 heartwater vaccine. Trop Animal Health Prod 21:100. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Jongejan F, Uilenberg G, Franssen FFJ. 1988. Antigenic differences between stocks of Cowdria ruminantium. Res Vet Sci 44:186. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Jongejan F. 1991. Protective immunity to heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) is acquired after vaccination with in vitro–attenuated rickettsiae. Infect Immun 59:729. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Collins NE, Pretorius A, Van Kleef M, et al. 2003. Development of improved vaccines for heartwater. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:474. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Mahan SM, Smith GE, Kumbula D, et al. 2001. Reduction in mortality from heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats exposed to field challenge using an inactivated vaccine. Vet Parasitol 97:295. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Simbi BH, Bowie MV, McGuire TC, et al. 2006. Evaluation of E. ruminantium genes in DBA/2 mice as potential DNA vaccine candidates for control of heartwater. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:424. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Zweygarth E, Josemans AI, Van Strijp MF, et al. 2005. An attenuated Ehrlichia ruminantium (Welgevonden stock) vaccine protects small ruminants against virulent heartwater challenge. Vaccine 23:1695. PUBMED Abstract

Cerebral Theileriasis (Turning Sickness; Draaisiekte; East Coast Fever; Corridor Disease; January Disease; Tropical Fever)

  1. Van Veen TWS. 1987. Parasitic disease of the bovine nervous system. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 3:99. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Dolan TT. 1999. Dogmas and misunderstandings in East Coast fever. Trop Med Int Health 4:A3. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Kuttler KL, Craig TM. 1975. Isolation of a bovine Theileria. Am J Vet Res 36:323. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Ndungu SG, Brown CGD, Dolan TT. 2005. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:13. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Viseras J, Hueli LE, Adroher FJ. 1999. Studies on the transmission of Theileria annulata to cattle by the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 46:505. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Campbell JD, Spooner RL. 1999. Macrophages behaving badly: infected cells and subversion of immune responses to Theileria annulata. Parasitol Today 15:10. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Heussle VT, Machado Jr J, Fernandez PC, et al. 1999. The intracellular parasite Theileria parva protects infected T cells from apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:7312. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Dobbelaere DA, Fernandez PC, Heussle VT. 2000. Theileria parva: taking control of host cell proliferation and survival mechanisms. Cell Microbiol 2:91. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Dobbelaere D, Heussler V. 1999. Transformation of leukocytes by Theileria parva and T. annulata. Annu Rev Microbiol 53:1. PUBMED Abstract
  10. De Kock G, van Heerden CJ, du Toit R, et al. 1937. Bovine theileriasis in South Africa with special reference to Theileria mutans. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Ind 8:9.
  11. Khanna BM, Kharole MU, Shruti D. 1982. Histopathological studies in cerebral theileriosis of calves experimentally infected with Theileria annulata. Indian J Parasitol 6:91.
  12. Van Amstel SR. 1982. Bovine cerebral theileriosis: some aspects of its clinical diagnosis. Proceedings of the Twelfth World Congress on Diseases of Cattle, Sept 7-10, Amsterdam.
  13. Van Rensburg IBJ. 1976. Bovine cerebral theileriosis: a report on five cases with splenic infarction. J S Afr Vet Assoc 47:137. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Muraguri GR, Kiara HH, McHardy N. 1999. Treatment of East Coast fever: a comparison of parvaquone and buparvaquone. Vet Parasitol 87:25. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, et al. 2006. Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection). Res Vet Sci 81:119. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Mbwambo HA, Magwisha HB, Mfinanga JM. 2006. Evaluation of buparvaquone (BUTA-Kel KELA, Belgium) as a treatment of East Coast fever in cattle, in the peri-urban of Dar Es Salaam City, Tanzania. Vet Parasitol 139:67. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Musoke RA, Tweyongyere R, Bizimenyera E, et al. 2004. Treatment of East Coast fever of cattle with a combination of parvaquone and frusemide. Trop Anim Health Prod 36:233. PUBMED Abstract
  18. McHardy N, Haigh AJB, Dolan TT. 1976. Chemotherapy of Theileria parva infection. Nature 261:698. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Boulter N, Hall R. 1999. Immunity and vaccine development in the bovine theilerioses. Adv Parasitol 44:41. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Pipano E, Shkap V. 2000. Vaccination against tropical theileriosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 916:484. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Woodford JD. 1988. The use of cypermethrin-impregnated ear tags as an adjunct to East Coast fever immunization in theileriosis in eastern, central, and southern Africa. Proceedings of a Workshop on East Coast Fever Immunization, Sept 20-22, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Cerebral Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

  1. Masake RA, Nantulya GWO. 1984. Cerebral trypanosomiasis in cattle with mixed Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei brucei infections. Acta Trop 41:237. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Wellde B, Lotzsch R, Deindl G, et al. 1974. Trypanosoma congolense. I. Clinical observations of experimentally infected cattle. Exp Parasitol 36:6. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Wellde BT, Chumo A, Onyango FK, et al. 1989. Trypanosoma vivax: disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83:177. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Wellde BT, Preston JM, Kovatch RM, et al. 1989. Trypanosoma congolense: erythrocyte indices, plasma iron turnover, and effects of treatment in infected cattle. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83:201. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Wellde BT, Reardon MJ, Chumo DA, et al. 1989. Cerebral trypanosomiasis in naturally infected cattle in the Lambwe Valley, South Nayanza, Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83:151. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Olubayo RO, Mugera GM. 1987. The pathogenesis of hemorrhages in Trypanosoma vivax infection. II. Pathomorphological changes. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 35:286.
  7. Murray MM, Murray PK, McIntyre WIM. 1977. An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 71:325. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Holmes PH, Whitelaw DD, Bell I, et al. 1985. The association between samorin chemoprophylaxis and immune responses in cattle under experimental metacyclic Trypanosoma congolense challenge. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control, Nov 23-27, Harare, Nairobi, Kenya Pub No 113.
  9. Munstermann S, Mbura RJ, Maloo SH, et al. 1992. Trypanosomiasis control in Boran cattle in Kenya: a comparison between chemoprophylaxis and a parasite detection and intravenous treatment method using isometamidium chloride. Trop Anim Health Prod 24:17. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Dowler ME, Schillinger D, Connor RJ. 1989. Notes on the routine intravenous use of isometamidium in the control of bovine trypanosomiasis on the Kenya coast. Trop Anim Health Prod 21:3. PUBMED Abstract
  11. ILRAD Reports. 1987. Improved trypanosomiasis control: studies on drug treatment vol 5, ILRAD: Nairobi.
  12. Rowlands GJ, et al. 1993. Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Ghibe Valley, southwest Ethiopia. II. Factors associated with variations in trypanosome prevalence, incidence of new infections, and prevalence of recurrent infections. Acta Trop 53:135. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Codjia V, et al. 1993. Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Ghibe Valley, southwest Ethiopia. III. Occurrence of populations of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazene, isometamidium, and homidium. Acta Trop 53:151. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Mwambo HA, Mella PNP, Lekaki KA. 1988. Trypanosomiasis chemotherapy: further observations on a strain of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazene aceturate. Tanz Vet Bull 8:45. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Thompson M. 1987. The effect on tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) of deltamethrin applied to cattle either as a spray or incorporated into ear tags. Trop Pest Manag 33:329.
  16. Leak SGA, Paling RW, Moloo SK. 1985. The trypanotolerance network. II. A study on health and productivity of N'Dama Nguni and their crosses under quantified levels of tsetse challenge in Gabon. II. Tsetse survey. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control, Nov 23-27, Nairobi, Kenya.
  17. Paling RW, Moloo SK, Scott JR, et al. 1991. Susceptibility of N'Dama and Boran cattle to sequential challenges with tsetse-transmitted clones of Trypanosoma congolense. Parasite Immunol 13:427. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Murray M, Trail JCM, D'ieteren GDM. 1990. Trypanotolerance in cattle and prospects for the control of trypanosomiasis by selective breeding. Rev Sci Tech 9:369. PUBMED Abstract

Polioencephalomalacia (Cerebrocortical Necrosis)

  1. Jensen R, Griner LA, Adams OR. 1956. Polioencephalomalacia of cattle and sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 129:311. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Terlecki S, Markson LM. 1961. Cerebrocortical necrosis in cattle and sheep. Vet Rec 43:23.
  3. Jubb KVF, Huxtable CR. 1993. The nervous system. In Jubb KVF, Kennedy PC, Palmer N (eds), Pathology of domestic animals, ed 4. Academic, New York, NY.
  4. Bulgin MS, Lincoln SD, Mather G. 1996. Elemental sulfur toxicosis in a flock of sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:1063. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Raisbeck MF. 1982. Is polioencephalomalacia associated with high-sulfate diets? J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:1303. PUBMED Abstract
  6. McAllister MM, Gould DH, Hamar DW. 1992. Sulphide-induced polioencephalomalacia in lambs. J Comp Pathol 106:267. PUBMED Abstract
  7. McAllister MM, Gould DH, Raisbeck MF, et al. 1997. Evaluation of ruminal sulfide concentrations and seasonal outbreaks of polioencephalomalacia in beef cattle in a feedlot. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:1275. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Loneragan GH, Gould DH, Callan RJ, et al. 1998. Association of excess sulfur intake and an increase in hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the ruminal gas cap of recently weaned beef calves with polioencephalomalacia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:1599. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Pill AH. 1967. Evidence of thiamine deficiency in calves affected with cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 81:178. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Padovan D. 1980. Polioencephalomalacia associated with water deprivation in cattle. Cornell Vet 70:153. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Wernery U, Haydn-Evans J, Kinne J. 1998. Amprolium-induced cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) in dromedary racing camels. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 45:335. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Spicer EM, Horton BJ. 1981. Biochemistry of natural and amprolium-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep. Aust Vet J 57:230. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Loew FM, Dunlop RH. 1972. Induction of thiamine inadequacy and polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep with amprolium. Am J Vet Res 33:2195. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Mella CM, Perez-Oliva O, Loew FM. 1976. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. Can J Comp Med 40:104. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Wells GAH, Howell JM, Gopinath C. 1976. Experimental lead encephalopathy in calves: histological observations on the nature and distribution of the lesions. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2:175.
  16. Colontino J, Bulmer WS. 1997. Polioencephalomalacia in a dairy cow. Can Vet J 18:356. PUBMED Abstract
  17. McHowell J. 1961. Polioencephalomalacia in calves. Vet Rec 75:1165.
  18. Claes-Goran L. 1973. Cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) in a calf and experimental reproduction of the disease. Acta Vet Scand 14:464.
  19. Gould DH, McAllister MM, Savage JC, et al. 1991. High sulfide concentrations in rumen fluid associated with nutritionally induced polioencephalomalacia in calves. Am J Vet Res 52:1164. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Gould DH, Cummings BA, Hamar DW. 1997. In vivo indicators of pathologic ruminal sulfide production in steers with diet-induced polioencephalomalacia. J Vet Diagn Invest 9:72. PUBMED Abstract
  21. McAllister MM, Gould DH. 1998. Decreased H2S concentrations in gas caps of PEM affected animals (personal communication).
  22. Loneragan GH, Gould DH, Wagner JJ, et al. 1997. The effect of varying water sulfate content on H2S generation and health of feedlot cattle. Proceedings from the American Society of Animal Science Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting, July 29-Aug 1, Nashville, Tenn.
  23. Olkowski AA, Gooneratne SR. 1992. Microbiological methods of thiamine measurement in biological material. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 62:34. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Edwin EE, Jackman R. 1973. Ruminal thiaminase and tissue thiamine in cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 92:640. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Edwin EE, Markson LM, Shreeve J, et al. 1979. Diagnostic aspects of cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 104:4. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Gupta GC, Joshi BP, Rai P. 1976. The levels of thiamine in the rumen fluid and blood serum in the spontaneous bovine rumen dysfunctions. Acta Vet Brno 45:205.
  27. Thornber EJ, Dunbar RH, Gawthorne JM, et al. 1981. Induced thiamin deficiency in lambs. Aust Vet J 57:21. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Loew FM, Dunlop RH, Christian RG. 1970. Biochemical aspects of an outbreak of bovine polioencephalomalacia. Can Vet J 11:57. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Strain GM, Claxton MS, Olcott BM, et al. 1990. Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms in ruminants with thiamine-responsive polioencephalomalacia or suspected listeriosis. Am J Vet Res 51:1513. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Siebert G, Gessner B, Klasser M. 1986. Energy supply of the central nervous system. Bibl Nutr Dieta 38:1. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Forster RE, Estabrook RW. 1993. Is oxygen an essential nutrient? Annu Rev Nutr 13:383. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Breves G, Hoeller H, Harmeyer J, et al. 1980. Thiamine balance in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. J Anim Sci 51:1177. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Gaitonde MK, Evison E, Evans GM. 1983. The rate of utilization of glucose via hexosemonophosphate shunt in brain. J Neurochem 41:1253. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Shreeve JE, Edwin EE. 1974. Thiaminase-producing strains of Cl. sporogenes associated with outbreaks of cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 94:330. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Edwin EE, Jackman R. 1970. Thiaminase I in the development of cerebrocortical necrosis in sheep and cattle. Nature 228:772. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Bakker HJ, Dickson J, Steele P, et al. 1980. Experimental induction of ovine polioencephalomalacia. Vet Rec 107:464. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Meyer P. 1989. Thiaminase activities and thiamine content of Pteridium aquilinum, Equisetum ramosissimum, Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 56:145. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Pritchard D, Eggleston GW, Macadam JF. 1978. Nardoo fern and polioencephalomalacia. Aust Vet J 54:204. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Murata K. 1982. Actions of two types of thiaminase on thiamine and its analogs. Ann N Y Acad Sci 378:146. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Linklater KA, Dyson DA, Morgan KT. 1977. Faecal thiaminase in clinically normal sheep associated with outbreaks of polioencephalomalacia. Res Vet Sci 22:308. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Edwin EE, Jackman R. 1981. Elevation of blood keto acids in cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 109:75. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Plaitakis A, Hwang EC, Woert MH, et al. 1982. Effect of thiamine deficiency on brain neurotransmitter systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci 378:3671. PUBMED Abstract
  43. National Research Council. 1996. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, ed 7. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
  44. Jeffrey M, Duff JP, Higgins RJ, et al. 1994. Polioencephalomalacia associated with the ingestion of ammonium sulphate by sheep and cattle (see comments). Vet Rec 134:343. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Loneragan GH, Gould DH, Garry FB. 1998. Field investigations of sulfur-associated polioencephalomalacia (PEM). Proceedings of the Ninetieth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science, July 28-30, Denver, CO.
  46. Hill FI, Ebbett PC. 1997. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle in New Zealand fed chou moellier (Brassica oleracea). N Z Vet J 45:37. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Hamlen H, Clark E, Janzen E. 1993. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: a herd investigation. Can Vet J 34:153. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Beke GJ, Hironaka R. 1991. Toxicity to beef cattle of sulfur in saline well water: a case study. Sci Total Environ 101:281. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Bird PR, Moir RJ. 1971. Sulphur metabolism and excretion studies in ruminants. I. The absorption of sulphate in the sheep after intraruminal or intraduodenal infusions of sodium sulphate. Aust J Biol Sci 24:1319. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Bray AC, Till AR. 1975. Metabolism of sulfur in the gastrointestinal tract: digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, Tamworth, Australia.
  51. Goodrich RD, Kahlon TS, Pamp DE, et al. 1978. Sulfur in ruminant nutrition. National Feed Ingredients Association: West Des Moines, IA.
  52. Lewis D. 1954. The reduction of sulphate in the rumen of the sheep. Biochem J 56:391. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Cummings BA, Caldwell DR, Gould DH, et al. 1995. Identity and interactions of rumen microbes associated with dietary sulfate-induced polioencephalomalacia in cattle. Am J Vet Res 56:1384. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Macy JM, et al. 1986. Growth of Wolinella succinogenes on H2S plus fumarate and on fomate plus sulphur as energy sources. Arch Microbiol 144:147.
  55. Bray AC. 1969. Sulphur metabolism in sheep. II. The absorption of inorganic sulphate and inorganic sulphide from the sheep's rumen. Aust J Agric Res 20:739.
  56. Bray AC. 1969. Sulphur metabolism in sheep. III. The movement of blood inorganic sulphate across the rumen wall of sheep. Aust J Agric Res 20:749.
  57. Bray AC. 1969. Sulphur metabolism in sheep. IV. The effect of a varied dietary sulphur content on some body fluid sulphate levels and on the utilization of urea-supplemented roughage by sheep. Aust J Agric Res 20:759.
  58. Kandylis K, Bray AC. 1982. Loss of volatile sulfur from sheep. Aust J Agric Res 33:585.
  59. Bird PR, Hume ID. 1971. Sulfur metabolism and excretion studies in ruminants. IV. Cystine and sulphate effects upon the flow of sulphur from the rumen and upon sulphur excretion by sheep. Aust J Agric Res 22:443.
  60. Kennedy PM, Milligan LP. 1978. Quantitative aspects of the transformations of sulphur in sheep. Br J Nutr 39:65. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Kandylis K. 1983. Transfer of plasma sulfate from blood to rumen: a review. J Dairy Sci 66:2263. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Alves de Oliveira L, Jean-Blain C, Durix A, et al. 1996. Use of a semicontinuous culture system (RUSITEC) to study the effect of pH on microbial metabolism of thiamin (vitamin B1). Arch Tierernahr 49:193. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Cummings BA, Gould DH, Caldwell DR, et al. 1995. Ruminal microbial alterations associated with sulfide generation in steers with dietary sulfate-induced polioencephalomalacia. Am J Vet Res 56:1390. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Doyle PT, Adams NR. 1980. Toxic effects of large amounts of DL-methionine infused into the rumen of sheep. Aust Vet J 56:331. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Beauchamp Jr RO, Bus JS, Popp JA, et al. 1984. A critical review of the literature on hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol 13:25. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Evans CL. 1967. The toxicity of hydrogen sulphide and other sulphides. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 52:231. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Dougherty RW, Stewart WE, Nold MM, et al. 1962. Pulmonary absorption of eructated gas in ruminants. Am J Vet Res 23:205. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Olkowski AA. 1997. Neurotoxicity and secondary metabolic problems associated with low to moderate levels of exposure to excess dietary sulphur in ruminants: a review. Vet Hum Toxicol 39:355. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Rousseaux CG, Olkowski AA, Chauvet A, et al. 1991. Ovine polioencephalomalacia associated with dietary sulphur intake. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 38:229. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Olkowski AA, Gooneratne SR, Rousseaux CG, et al. 1992. Role of thiamine status in sulphur-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep. Res Vet Sci 52:78. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Alves de Oliveira L, Jean-Blain C, Dal Corso V, et al. 1996. Effect of a high sulfur diet on rumen microbial activity and rumen thiamine status in sheep receiving a semi-synthetic, thiamine-free diet. Reprod Nutr Dev 36:31. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Thomas KW. 1986. Oral treatment of polioencephalomalacia and subclinical thiamine deficiency with thiamine propyl disulphide and thiamine hydrochloride. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 9:402. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Dickie CW, Nelson RJ, Frazee DG, et al. 1979. Polioencephalomalacia in range cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 175:460. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Dickie CW, Berryman JR. 1979. Polioencephalomalacia and photosensitization associated with Kochia scoparia consumption in range cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 175:463. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Smith MC. 1979. Polioencephalomalacia in goats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:1328. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Seimiya Y, Itoh H, Ohshima K. 1989. A case of cerebrocortical necrosis in a sheep. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 51:1075. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Kurtz HJ, Karns PD. 1969. Polioencephalomalacia in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis). Pathol Vet 6:475. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Beck C, Dart A, Collins MB, et al. 1996. Polioencephalomalacia in two alpacas. Aust Vet J 74:350. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Gabbedy BJ, Richards RB. 1977. Polioencephalomalacia of sheep and cattle. Aust Vet J 53:36. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Thomas KW, Kelly AP, Beers PT, et al. 1990. Thiamine deficiency in sheep exported live by sea. Aust Vet J 67:215. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Edwin EE, Jackman R. 1981. Nature of the autofluorescent material in cerebrocortical necrosis. J Neurochem 37:1054. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Little PB. 1978. Identity of fluorescence in polioencephalomalacia. Vet Rec 103:76. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Spicer EM, Horton BJ. 1981. Biochemistry of natural and amprolium-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep. Aust Vet J 57:230. PUBMED Abstract

Salt Poisoning (With or Without Concurrent Water Deprivation)

  1. Beke GJ, Hironaka R. 1991. Toxicity to beef cattle of sulfur in saline well water: a case study. Sci Total Environ 101:281. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Cebra CK, Cebra ML. 2004. Altered mentation caused by polioencephalomalacia, hypernatramias, and lead poisoning. Vet Clin Food Anim 20:287. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Stegelmeier BL, Hall JO, Mattix MT. 2001. Neurologic disease in range goats associated with Oxytropis sericea (locoweed) poisoning and water deprivation. Vet Human Toxicol 43:302. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Scarratt WC, Collins TJ, Sponenberg DP. 1985. Water deprivation–sodium chloride intoxication in a group of feeder lambs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:977. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Meyer JH, Weir WC, Ittner NR, et al. 1955. The influence of high sodium chloride intakes by fattening sheep and cattle. J Anim Sci 14:412.
  6. Pistor W, Nesbitt JC, Cardon BP. 1954. The influence of high salt intake on the physiology of ruminants. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, Aug 23-26, Seattle, WA.
  7. Sandals WCD. 1978. Acute salt poisoning in cattle. Can Vet J 19:136. PUBMED Abstract
  8. McCoy CP, Edwards WC. 1980. Sodium ion poisoning in livestock from oil field wastes. Bovine Pract 15:152.
  9. Jaster EH, Schuh JD, Wegner TN. 1978. Physiological effects of saline drinking water on high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 61:66.
  10. Ratliff RD. 1942. Sodium chloride poisoning in cattle. Vet Med 37:438.
  11. Pearson EG, Kallfelz FA. 1982. A case of presumptive salt poisoning (water deprivation) in veal calves. Cornell Vet 72:142. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Bohosiewicz M. 1958. Laboratory research on sodium chloride poisoning in cattle. Weterynaria Wroclaw 4:91.
  13. Jones TH. 1930. Salt poisoning in a cow. Vet Rec 10:10.
  14. Ballantyne EE. 1957. Drinking waters toxic for livestock. Can J Comp Med 21:254. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Trueman KF, Clague DC. 1978. Sodium chloride poisoning in cattle. Aust Vet J 54:89. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Thilsted JP, Hibbs CM, Dowds SJ, et al. 1981. Sodium salt toxicosis in beef cows resulting from the consumption of saline water. Proc Am Assoc Vet Lab Diagn 81:229.
  17. Osweiler GD, Hurd JW. 1974. Determination of sodium content in serum and cerebrospinal fluid as an adjunct to diagnosis of water deprivation in swine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:165. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Utter MI. 1950. Mechanism of inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis of brain by sodium ions. J Biol Chem 185:499. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Pringle JK, Berthiaume LM. 1988. Hypernatremia in calves. J Vet Intern Med 1:66. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Monlux AW, et al. 1971. The effects of oil field pollutants on vegetation and farm animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:1379. PUBMED Abstract
  21. WC Edwards. 1989. Toxicology of oil field wastes: hazards to livestock associated with the petroleum industry. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim 5:363. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Banks P, Roussel AJ, Mealey RH. 1996. High-sodium crystalloid solution for treatment of hypernatremia in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:1268. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Angelos SM, Smith BP, George LW, et al. 1999. Treatment of hypernatremia in an acidotic neonatal calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:1364. PUBMED Abstract

Vitamin A Deficiency

  1. Divers TJ, Blackmon DM, Martin CL, et al. 1986. Blindness and convulsions associated with vitamin A deficiency in feedlot steers. Am J Vet Res 189:1579. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Shlosberg A, Levinsohn M, Nagel N. 1977. Severe hypovitaminosis A in two herds of beef calves. Refuah Vet 34:25.
  3. Moore LA. 1941. Some ocular changes and deficiency manifest in mature cows fed a ration deficient in vitamin A. J Dairy Sci 24:843.
  4. Booth A, Reid M, Clark T. 1981. Hypovitaminosis A in feedlot cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:1305. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Sustonck B, Deprez P, Muylle E. 1993. Nervous disorders associated with hypovitaminosis A in beef cattle. Vlaams Diergeneeskd Tijdschr 62:95.
  6. Diven RH, Erwin ES. 1958. Utilization of vitamin A and carotene by normal and deficient sheep. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 97:601. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Swanson KS, Merchen NR, Erdman JW, et al. 2000. Influence of dietary vitamin A content on serum and liver vitamin A concentrations and health in preruminant Holstein calves fed milk replacer. J Dairy Sci 83:2027. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Eaton HD. 1969. Chronic bovine hypo- and hypervitaminosis A and cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Am J Clin Nutr 22:1070. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Barnett KC, Palmer AC, Abrams JT, et al. 1970. Ocular changes associated with hypovitaminosis A in cattle. Br Vet J 126:561. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Eaton HD, Lucas JJ, Nielsen SW, et al. 1970. Association of plasma or liver vitamin A concentrations with the occurrence of parotid duct metaplasia or of ocular papilledema in Holstein male calves. J Dairy Sci 53:1755. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Van Der Lugt JJ, Prozesky L. 1989. The pathology of blindness in newborn calves caused by hypovitaminosis A. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 56:99. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Anderson WI, Rebhun WC, deLahunta A, et al. 1991. The ophthalmic and neuroophthalmic effects of a vitamin A deficiency in young steers. Vet Med 86:1143.
  13. Dbanapalan P, et al. 1992. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurement as a diagnostic aid for hypovitaminosis A in calves. Indian Vet J 69:917.
  14. Van Der Lugt JJ, Prozesky L. 1989. The pathology of blindness in newborn calves caused by hypovitaminosis A. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 56:99. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Brans NJ, et al. 1989. Humoral immunity in vitamin A–deficient and vitamin A–repleted lambs. FASEB J 3:A663.
  16. Guilbert HR, Miller RF, Hughes EH. 1937. The minimum vitamin A and carotene requirement of cattle, sheep, and swine. J Nutr 13:543.
  17. Paulsen ME, Johnson L, Young S, et al. 1989. Blindness and sexual dimorphism associated with vitamin A deficiency in feedlot cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 194:933. PUBMED Abstract
  18. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, ed 7 rev. National Academic Press: Washington, DC.
  19. Shepherd JB. 1954. Experiments in harvesting and preserving alfalfa for dairy cattle feed, USDA Technical Bulletin. US Department of Agriculture, Baltimore, MD.
  20. Helmbolt CF, Jungherr EL, Eaton HD. 1953. The pathology of experimental hypovitaminosis A in young dairy animals. Am J Vet Res 14:343. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Holland RE, Pfeiffer CJ, Bruns NJ, et al. 1993. Morphologic alterations in small intestinal epithelium of lambs fed vitamin A–depleted diet. Dig Dis Sci 38:333. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Siebert BD, Kruk ZA, Davis J, et al. 2006. Effect of low vitamin A status on fat deposition and fatty acid desaturation in beef cattle. Lipids 41:365. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Page HM, Erwin ES, Varnell TR, et al. 1958. Effect of hepatic vitamin A and carotene concentration on the biological value of carotene in the bovine. Am J Physiol 194:313. PUBMED Abstract

Hydrocephalus and Hydranencephaly of Ruminants

  1. De Lahunta A. 1977. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Greene HJ, Leipold HW, Huston K, et al. 1973. Congenital defects in cattle. Irish Vet J 27:37.
  3. Doherty RL, Carley JG, Standfast HA, et al. 1972. Virus strains isolated from arthropods during an epizootic of bovine ephemeral fever in Queensland. Aust Vet J 48:81. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Blood DC. 1969. Arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in newborn calves. Aust Vet J 32:987.
  5. Hartley WJ, Wanner RA, Della-Porta AJ. 1975. Serological evidence for the association of akabane virus with epizootic bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly syndromes in New South Wales. Aust Vet J 51:103. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Hartley WJ, De Saram WG, Della-Porta AJ. 1977. Pathology of congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly and its relationship to akabane virus. Aust Vet J 53:319. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Whittem JH. 1957. Congenital abnormalities in calves, arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. J Pathol Bacteriol 73:357.
  8. Inaba Y, Kurogi H, Omori T. 1975. Akabane disease: epizootic abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle, sheep and goats caused by akabane virus. Aust Vet J 51:584. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Parsonson IM, Della-Porta AJ, Snowdon WA. 1977. Congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs after infection of pregnant sheep with akabane virus. Infect Immun 15:254. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Steukers L, Bertels G, Cay AB, et al. 2012. Schmallenberg virus: emergence of an Orthobunyavirus among ruminants in Western Europe. Vlaams Diergen Tijds 81:119.
  11. Herder V, Wohlsein P, Peters M, et al. 2012. Salient lesions in domestic ruminants infected with the emerging so-called Schmallenberg Virus in Germany. Vet Pathol 49:588. PUBMED Abstract
  12. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). OIE Technical Factsheet: Schmallenberg Virus. [WWW page]., accessed August 25, 2012.
  13. Rasmussen LD, Kristensen B, Kirkeby C, et al. Culicoids as vectors of Schmallenberg virus. Emerg Inf Dis 18:1204, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Jagoe S, Kirkland PD, Harper PA. 1993. An outbreak of akabane virus–induced abnormalities in calves after agistment in an endemic region. Aust Vet J 70:56. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Kurogi H, Inaba Y, Takahashi E, et al. 1977. Congenital abnormalities in newborn calves after inoculation of pregnant cows with akabane virus. Infect Immun 17:338. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Kirkland PD, Barry RD, Harper PA, et al. 1988. The development of akabane virus—induced congenital abnormalities in cattle. Vet Rec 122:582. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Whittington RJ, Glastonbury JR, Plant JW, et al. 1988. Congenital hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis of Corriedale sheep. Aust Vet J 65:124. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Cybinski DH, St George TD. 1978. A survey of antibody to aino virus in cattle and other species in Australia. Aust Vet J 54:371. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Kitano Y, Yamashita S, Furukawa M, et al. 1993. Congenital abnormalities in calves suggesting aino virus infection in Kagoshima prefecture. J Jpn Vet Med Assoc 46:469.
  20. Tsuda T, Yoshida K, Ohashi S, et al. 2004. Arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome in neonatal calves resulting from intrauterine infection with aino virus. Vet Res 35:531. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Goto Y, Miura Y, Kono Y. 1988. Serologic evidence for the etiologic role of Chuzan virus in an epizootic of congenital abnormalities with hydranencephaly–cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome of calves in Japan. Am J Vet Res 49:2026. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Miura Y, Kubo M, Goto Y, et al. 1991. Chuzan disease as congenital hydranencephaly cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome in calves. Jpn Agric Res Q 25:55.
  23. Miura Y, Kubo M, Goto Y, et al. 1990. Hydranencephaly cerebellar hypoplasia in a newborn calf after infection of its dam with Chuzan virus. Jpn J Vet Sci 52:689. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Edwards JF, Livingston CW, Chung SI, et al. 1989. Ovine arthrogryposis and central nervous system malformations associated with in utero Cache Valley virus infection: spontaneous disease. Vet Pathol 26:33. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Crandell RA, Livingston CW, Shelton MJ. 1989. Laboratory investigation of a naturally occurring outbreak of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in Texas sheep. J Vet Diagn Invest 1:62. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Jochim M, Luedke AJ, Chow TL. 1974. Bluetongue in cattle: immunologic and clinical responses in calves inoculated in utero and after birth. Am J Vet Res 35:517.
  27. Edwards JF. 1994. Cache Valley virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 10:515. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Osburn BI, Johnson RT, Silverstein AM, et al. 1971. Experimental viral-induced congenital encephalopathies. II. The pathogenesis of bluetongue vaccine virus infection in fetal lambs. Lab Invest 25:206. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Luedke AJ, Jochim MM, Jones RH. 1977. Bluetongue in cattle: effects of Culicoides variipennis–transmitted bluetongue virus in pregnant heifers and their calves. Am J Vet Res 38:1687. PUBMED Abstract
  30. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare. 2011. Scientific opinion on bluetongue serotype 8. EFSA J 9:2189.
  31. Badman RT, Mitchell G, Jones RT. 1981. Association of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection to hydranencephaly and other central nervous system lesions in perinatal calves. Aust Vet J 57:306. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Axthelm MK, Leipold HW, Jayasekara UM, et al. 1981. Congenital microhydraencephalus in cattle. Cornell Vet 71:164. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Trautwein G, Hewicker M, Liess B, et al. 1985. Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydranencephaly in cattle associated with transplacental BVD virus infection. In: JW Harkness (ed), Agriculture pestivirus infections of ruminants. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
  34. Trautwein G, et al. 1986. Studies on transplacental transmissibility of a bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) vaccine virus in cattle. III. Occurrence of central nervous system malformations in calves born from vaccinated cows. J Vet Med 33:260. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Dubey JP, Abbitt B, Topper MJ, et al. 1998. Hydrocephalus associated with Neospora caninum infection in an aborted bovine fetus. J Comp Pathol 118:169. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Urman HK, Grace OD. 1964. Hereditary encephalomyopathy: a hydrocephalus syndrome in newborn calves. Cornell Vet 54:229. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Axthelm MK, Leipold HW, Howard D. 1980. Hereditary internal hydrocephalus. Proc Am Assoc Vet Lab Diagn 115.
  38. Baker M, Payne LC, Baker GN. 1961. The inheritance of hydrocephalus in cattle. J Hered 52:135.
  39. Gilman JPW. 1956. Congenital hydrocephalus in domestic animals. Cornell Vet 45:487. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Takeshi T, Okamura S, Nakaichi M, et al. 2002. Transorbital echoencephalography in cattle. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 43:55. PUBMED Abstract

Ammoniated Forage Toxicosis (Cow Bonkers)

  1. Kerr LA, McCoy CP, Boyle CR. 1990. Effects of ammoniation of endophyte fungus–infested fescue hay on serum prolactin concentration and rectal temperature in beef cattle. Am J Vet Res 51:76. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Müller L, Sivertsen T, Langseth W. 1998. Ammoniated forage poisoning: concentrations of alkylimidazoles in ammoniated forage and in milk, plasma and urine in sheep and cow. Acta Vet Scand 39:511. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Sivertsen T, Muller L. 1999. Ammoniated forage poisoning: acute toxicity of newly identified dialkylimidazoles to inbred mice. Vet Hum Toxicol 41:363. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Kerr LA, Groce AW, Kersting KW. 1987. Ammoniated forage toxicosis in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:551. PUBMED Abstract

Lead Poisoning

  1. Priester WA, Hayes HM. 1974. Lead poisoning in cattle, horses, cats, and dogs as reported by 11 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada from July 1968 through June 1972. Am J Vet Res 35:567.
  2. Christian RG, Tryphonas L. 1971. Lead poisoning in cattle: brain lesions and hematologic changes. Am J Vet Res 32:203. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Buck WB. 1975. Toxins and neurologic disease in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 166:222. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Osweiler GD, Ruhr LP. 1978. Lead poisoning in feeder calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:498. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Cebra CK, Cebra ML. 2004. Altered mentation caused by polioencephalomalacia, hypernatremia, and lead poisoning. Vet Clin Food Anim 20:287. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Baker JC. 1987. Lead poisoning in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 3:137. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Casteel SW. 2001. Metal toxicosis in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 17:517. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Knight HD, Burau RG. 1973. Chronic lead poisoning in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 162:782. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Tyler JW, Ruffin DC, Hudson JS, et al. 1994. Clinical vignette: radiography as an adjunct to diagnosis of acute lead poisoning in cattle. J Vet Intern Med 8:67. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Ruth GR, Schwartz S, Stephenson B. 1977. Bovine protophorphyria: the first nonhuman model of this hereditary photosensitizing disease. Science 198. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Green RA, Monlux AW, Randolph TC. 1973. Blood porphyrin determination: a rapid field test for lead poisoning in cattle. Bovine Pract 5:30.
  12. Kelliher DJ, Hilliard EP, Poole DBR. 1973. Chronic lead intoxication in cattle: preliminary observations on its effects on the erythrocyte and on porphyrin metabolism. Irish J Agric Res 12:61.
  13. Zmudzki J, Bratton GR, Womac C, et al. 1984. The influence of milk diet, grain diet, and method of dosing on lead toxicity in young calves. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 76:490. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Bolton CE, Horton BJ, Pass DA. 1978. Evaluation of tests for the diagnosis of lead exposure in sheep. Aust Vet J 54:392. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Schmitt N, Brown G, Devlin EL. 1971. Lead poisoning in horses: an environmental health hazard. Arch Environ Health 23:185. PUBMED Abstract
  16. George JW, Duncan JR. 1979. The hematology of lead poisoning in man and animals. Vet Clin Pathol 8:23. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Miranda M, Lopez-Alonso M, Garcia-Partida P, et al. 2006. Long-term follow-up of blood lead levels and haematological and biochemical parameters in heifers that survived an accidental lead poisoning episode. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 53:305. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Swarup D, Ram Naresh R, Varshney VP, et al. 2007. Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial areas. Res Vet Sci 82:16. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Burrows GE, Borchard RE. 1982. Experimental lead toxicosis in ponies: comparison of the effects of smelter effluent–contaminated hay and lead acetate. Am J Vet Res 43:2129. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Gudmundson J. 1993. Lead poisoning in cattle. Agric Pract 14:43.
  21. Neathery MW, et al. 1987. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 70:645. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Goldstein GW, Asbury AK, Diamond I. 1974. Pathogenesis of lead encephalopathy uptake of lead and reaction of brain capillaries. Arch Neurol 31:382. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Rumbeiha WK, Braselton WE, Donch D. 2001. A retrospective study on the disappearance of blood lead in cattle with accidental lead toxicosis. J Vet Diagn Invest 13:373. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Waldner C, Checkley S, Blakley B, et al. 2002. Managing lead exposure and toxicity in cow-calf herds to minimize the potential for food residues. J Vet Diagn Invest 14:481. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Oskarsson A, Jorhem L, Sundberg J, et al. 1992. Lead poisoning in cattle: transfer of lead to milk. Sci Total Environ 111:83. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Ahrens FA. 1993. Effects of lead on glucose metabolism, ion flux, and collagen synthesis in cerebral capillaries of calves. Am J Vet Res 54:808. PUBMED Abstract
  27. George JW, Duncan JR. 1982. Pyrimidine-specific 5´ nucleotidase activity in bovine erythrocytes: effect of phlebotomy and lead poisoning. Am J Vet Res 43:17. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Every RR, Nicholson SS. 1981. Bovine lead poisoning from forage contaminated by sandblasted paint. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:1277. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Marcal WS, Pardo PE, Nascimento MRL, et al. 2003. Levels of lead in mineral salt commercial mixtures for beef cattle. J Vet Sci 4:235.
  30. Liu ZP. 2003. Lead poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smelters. Sci Total Environ 309:117. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Palacios H, Hibarren I, Olalla MJ, et al. 2002. Lead poisoning of horses in the vicinity of a battery recycling plant. Sci Total Environ 290:81. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Lemos RAA, Driemeier D, Guimarales EB, et al. 2004. Lead poisoning in cattle grazing pasture contaminated by industrial waste. Vet Hum Toxicol 46:326. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Ozmen O, Mo F. 2004. Acute lead intoxication in cattle housed in an old battery factory. Vet Hum Toxicol 46:255. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Aronson AL. 1972. Lead poisoning in cattle and horses following long-term exposure to lead. J Am Vet Med Assoc 33:627. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Dey S, Dwivedi SK. 2004. Lead in blood of urban Indian horses. Vet Hum Toxicol 46:194. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Zmudski J, Bratton GR, Womac C, et al. 1983. Lead poisoning in cattle: reassessment of the minimum toxic oral dose. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 30:435. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Coppock RW, Wagner WC, Reynolds RD. 1988. Migration of lead in a glass-lined bottom-unloading silo. Vet Hum Toxicol 30:458. PUBMED Abstract
  38. McSherry BJ, Willoughby RA, Thompson RG. 1971. Urinary delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the cow, dog, and cat. Can J Comp Med 35:136. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Blanco-Penedo I, Cruz JM, Lopez-Alonso M, et al. 2006. Influence of copper status on the accumulation of toxic and essential metals in cattle. Environ In 32:901. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Hammond PR, Aronson AL. 1964. Lead poisoning in cattle and horses in the vicinity of a lead smelter. Ann N Y Acad Sci 3:595. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Allcroft R. 1951. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep. Vet Rec 63:583.
  42. Semiya Y, Itoh H, Oshima K. 1991. Brain lesions of lead poisoning in a calf. J Vet Med Sci 53:117. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Holm LW, Wheat JD, Rhode EA. 1953. The treatment of chronic lead poisoning in horses with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Am Vet Med Assoc 123:383. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Hammond PB, Sorensen DK. 1957. Recent observations on the course and treatment of bovine lead poisoning. J Am Vet Med Assoc 130:23. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Bratton GR, Zmudzki J, Kincaid N. 1981. Thiamine as treatment of lead poisoning in ruminants. Mod Vet Pract 62:441. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Bratton GR, et al. 1981. Thiamine (vitamin B1) effects on lead intoxication and deposition of lead in tissues: therapeutic potential. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 59:164. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Coppock RW, Wagner WC, Reynolds RD, et al. 1991. Evaluation of EDTA and thiamine for treatment of experimentally induced environmental lead poisoning in cattle. Am J Vet Res 52:1160. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Swarup D, Upadhyay AK. 1991. Chemoprophylactic efficacy of thiamine hydrochloride in experimental lead toxicosis in calves. Indian J Anim Sci 61:1170.
  49. Maiti SK, Swarup D, Chandra SV. 1990. Therapeutic potential of thiamine hydrochloride in experimental chronic lead intoxication in goats. Res Vet Sci 48:377. PUBMED Abstract

Helichrysum argyrosphaerum (Golden Guinea Everlasting, Vaalsewejaartjie) Poisoning

  1. Basson PA, Kellerman TS, Albl P, et al. 1975. Blindness and encephalopathy caused by Helichrysum argyrosphaerum DC (Compositae) in sheep and cattle. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 42:135. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Van der Lugt JJ, Olivier J, Jordaan P. 1996. Status spongiosus, optic neuropathy, and retinal degeneration in Helichrysum argyrosphaerum poisoning in sheep and a goat. Vet Pathol 33:495. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Stafford GI, Jager AK, von Staden J. 2005. Activity of traditional South African sedative and potentially CNS-acting plants in the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor assay. J Ethnopharmacol 100:210. PUBMED Abstract

Flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris, Lathyrus collis) Poisoning

  1. Rowe LD, Ivie GW, DeLoach JR. 1993. The toxic effects of mature flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris CV Lathco) on sheep. Vet Hum Toxicol 35:127. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Rasmussen M, Allison MJ. 1993. Flatpea intoxication in sheep and indications of ruminal adaptation. Vet Hum Toxicol 35:123. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Flachowsky G, Bahr H, Anke M, et al. 1982. [Composition and food value of the flatpea (Lathyris sylvestris) L.]. Arch Tierernahr 32:393. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Forster Jr LA, Fontenot JP, Perry HD, et al. 1991. Apparent digestibility and nutrient balance in lambs fed different levels of flatpea hay. J Anim Sci 69:1719. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Foster JG, et al. 1996. Performance of feeder cattle offered a diet containing early bloom–stage flatpea silage. J Prod Agric 9:415.

Nitrofurazone Toxicosis

  1. Buck WB. 1975. Toxic materials and neurologic disease in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 166:222. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Lister EE, Fisher LJ. 1970. Establishment of the toxic level of nitrofurazone for young liquid-fed calves. J Dairy Sci 53:1490. PUBMED Abstract

Coenurosis (Sheep Gid; Coenurus cerebralis Infestation; Taenia multiceps Infestation)

  1. Greig A. 1977. Coenurosis in cattle. Vet Rec 100:266. PUBMED Abstract
  2. EJL Soulsby. 1965. Textbook of veterinary clinical pathology, vol 1. Blackwell, Oxford, England.
  3. De Villers. 1950. Treatment of gid in sheep. J S Afr Vet Med Assoc 21:155.
  4. Skerritt GC: 1991. Coenurosis, p 65. In Martin WB, Aitken IG (eds), Diseases of sheep. Blackwell: Oxford, England.
  5. Ozmen O, Sahinduran S, Haligur M, et al. 2005. Clinicopathological observations on Coenurus cerebralis in naturally infected sheep. Schweiz Arch Tieheilkd 147:129. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Doherty ML, et al. 1989. Outbreak of acute coenuriasis in adult sheep in Ireland. Vet Rec 125:185. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Yoshino T, Momotani E. 1988. A case of bovine coenurosis (Coenurus cerebralis) in Japan. Jpn J Vet Sci 50:433. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Summers BA, Cummings JF, de Lahunta A. 1995. Veterinary neuropathology. Mosby–Year Book, St Louis. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Smith MC, Bailey CS, Baker N, et al. 1988. Cerebral coenurosis in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:82. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Verster A, Tustin RC. 1990. Treatment of cerebral coenuriasis in sheep with praziquantel. J S Afr Vet Assoc 61:24. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Kelly DF, Payne Johnson CE: 1993. Cerebral healing after craniotomy to evacuate a Coenurus cerebralis cyst. J Comp Pathol 108:399. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Harwood DG. 1986. Metacestode disease in goats. Goat Vet Soc J 7:35.
  13. Tirgari M, Howard BR, Boargob A. 1987. Clinical and radiographical diagnosis of coenurosis cerebralis in sheep and its surgical treatment. Vet Rec 120:173. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Doherty ML, McAllister H, Healy A. 1989. Ultrasound as an aid to Coenurus cerebralis cyst localization in a lamb. Vet Rec 124:591. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Skerritt GC, Stallbaumer MF. 1984. Diagnosis and treatment of coenuriasis (gid) in sheep. Vet Rec 115:399. PUBMED Abstract

Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

  1. Read WK, Bridges CH. 1968. Neuronal lipodystrophy: occurrence in an inbred strain of cattle. Vet Pathol 6:235. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Harper PA, et al. 1988. Neurovisceral ceroid lipofuscinosis in blind Devon cattle. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 75:632. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Edwards JF, et al. 1994. Juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Rambouillet sheep. Vet Pathol 31:48. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Fiske RA, Storts RW. 1988. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Nubian goats. Vet Pathol 25:171. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Lingaas F, Mitchison HM, Mole SE, et al. 1999. Animal models of NCL, p 152. In Goebel HH, Mole SE, Lake BD (eds). The neuronal ceroid lipfuscinoses (Batten disease). IOS, Amsterdam.
  6. Url A, Bauder B, Thalhammer J, et al. 2001. Equine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Acta Neuropathol 101:410. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Jolly RD, Janmaat DM, West DM. 1980. Ovine ceroid lipofuscinosis: a model of Batten's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 6:195. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Jolly RD. 1995. Comparative biology of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL): an overview. Am J Med Genet 57:307. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Martinus RD, Harper PA, Jolly RD, et al. 1991. Bovine ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease): the major component stored is the DCCD-reactive proteolipid, subunit c, of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Vet Res Commun 15:85. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Woods PR, Walker MA, Weir VA, et al. 1993. Computed tomography of Rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 34:259.
  11. Jolly RD, Walkley SU. 1999. Ovine ceroid lipofuscinosis (OCL6): postulated mechanism of neurodegeneration. Mol Genet Metab 66:376. PUBMED Abstract

Diseases Presenting Principally with Brainstem and Cranial Nerve Dysfunction

Peripheral Vestibular Disease of Horses

  1. Rush BR. 2004. Vestibular disease, pp 579-588. In Reed SM, Bayly WM, Sellon DC (eds), Equine internal medicine, ed 2. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Bedenice D, Hoffman AM, Parrott B, et al. 2001. Vestibular signs associated with suspected lightning strike in two horses. Vet Rec 149:519. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Williams MA. 2000. Lightning strike in horses. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 22:860.
  4. Rand CL, Hall TL, Aleman M, et al. 2012. Otitis media-interna and secondary meningitis associated with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 24:271.
  5. Blythe LL. 1997. Otitis media and interna and temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:21. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Walker AM, Sellon DC, Cornelisse CJ, et al. 2002. Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in 33 horses (1993-2000). J Vet Intern Med 16:697. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Johnson PJ, Kellam LL. 2001. The vestibular system. Part II: Differential diagnosis. Equine Vet Educ 13:141.
  8. Slovis N. 2012. Equine otitis media-interna. Equine Vet Educ 24:276.
  9. Mayhew IG, Washbourne JR. 1992. Short latency auditory evoked potentials recorded from non-anaesthetized Thoroughbred horses. Br Vet J 148:315. PUBMED Abstract

Equine Nigropallidal Encephalomalacia (Star Thistle Poisoning, Knapweed Poisoning)

  1. Larson KA, Young S. 1970. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses in Colorado. J Am Vet Med Assoc 156:626. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Young S, Brown WW, Klinger B. 1970. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses caused by ingestion of weeds of the genus Centaurea. J Am Vet Med Assoc 157:1602. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Farrell RK, Sande RD, Lincoln SD. 1971. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:1201. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Fowler ME. 1965. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 147:607. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Sanders SG, Tucker RL, Bagley RS, et al. 2001. Magnetic resonance imaging features of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 42:291. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Stevens KL, Riopelle RJ, Wong RY. 1990. Repin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Acroptilon repens possessing exceptional biological activity. J Nat Prod 53:218. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Choi B, Han B, Robles M, et al. 2000. Studies on neurotoxic effects of repin, a principal sesquiterpene lactone of Russian knapweed that causes equine nigrostriatal encephalomalacia. Brain Pathol 10:785.
  8. Robles M, Choi BH, Han B, et al. 1998. Repin-induced neurotoxicity in rodents. Exp Neurol 152:129. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Roy DN, Peyton DH, Spencer PS. 1995. Isolation and identification of two potent neurotoxins, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Nat Toxins 3:174. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Chang HT, Rumbeiha WK, Patterson JS, et al. 2012. Toxic equine parkinsonism: An immunohistochemical study of 10 horses with nigropallidal encephalomalacia. Vet Pathol 49:398. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Cordy DR. 1954. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses associated with ingestion of yellow star thistle. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 13:330. PUBMED Abstract

Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy

  1. Blythe LL. 1997. Otitis media and interna and temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:21. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Naylor RJ, Perkins JD, Allen S, et al. 2010. Histopathology and computed tomography of age-associated degeneration of the equine temporohyoid joint. Equine Vet J 42:425. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Divers TJ, Ducharme NG, de Lahunta A, et al. 2006. Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:17.
  4. Hilton H, Puchalski SM, Aleman M. 2009. The computed tomographic appearance of equine temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:151. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Aleman M, Puchalski SM, Williams DC, et al. 2008. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses in horses with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. J Vet Intern Med 22:1196. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Walker AM, Sellon DC, Cornelisse CJ, et al. 2002. Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in 33 horses (1993-2000). J Vet Intern Med 16:697. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Grenager NS, Divers TJ, Mohammed HO, et al. 2010. Epidemiological features and association with crib-biting in horses with neurological disease associated with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (1991-2008). Equine Vet Educ 22:467.
  8. Palus V, Bladon B, Brazil T, et al. 2012. Retrospective study of neurological signs and management of seven english horses with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Equine Vet Educ 24:415.
  9. Pownder S, Scrivani PV, Bezuidenhout A, et al. 2010. Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses. J Vet Intern Med 24:398. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Frame EM, Riihimaki M, Berger M, et al. 2005. Scintigraphic findings in a case of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 17:11.
  11. Blythe LL, Watrous BJ, Shires GMH, et al. 1994. Prophylactic partial stylohyoidostectomy for horses with osteoarthropathy of the temporohyoid joint. J Equine Vet Sci 14:32.
  12. Pease AP, Van Bierviliet J, Dykes NL, et al. 2004. Complication of partial stylohyoidectomy for treatment of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy and an alternative surgical technique in three cases. Equine Vet J 36:546. PUBMED Abstract

Horner Syndrome

  1. Palumbo MIP, Moreira JJ, Olivo G, et al. 2011. Right-sided laryngeal hemiplegia and Horner's syndrome in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 23:448.
  2. Tawfeeq MM, Miura S, Sugimoto K, et al. 2012. Thymic lymphosarcoma with brain involvement in a Holstein heifer. J Vet Med Sci 74:1501. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Rojman YR, Newkirk ES, Grewal JS. 2009. Penetrating injury at the thoracic inlet in a paint-Arab mare. Equine Vet Educ 21:621.
  4. Muller A, Niederhofer M. 2009. Malign mesothelioma of the pleura in a 13-year-old gelding. Prakt Tierarzt 90:220.
  5. Milne JC. 1986. Malignant melanomas causing Horner's syndrome in a horse. Equine Vet J 18:74. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Murray MJ, Cavey DM, Feldman BF, et al. 1997. Signs of sympathetic denervation associated with a thoracic melanoma in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 11:199. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Loste A, Ramos JJ, Ferrer LM, et al. 2006. Horner's syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep. Can J Vet Med 47:1208. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Pace LW, Wallace L, Rosenfeld CS, et al. 1997. Intracranial squamous cell carcinoma causing Horner's syndrome in a cow. J Vet Diagn Invest 9:106. PUBMED Abstract
  9. de Lahunta A, Glass EN. 2009. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology, ed 3. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Firth EC. 1978. Horner's syndrome in the horse: experimental induction and a case report. Equine Vet J 10:9. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Sweeney RW, Sweeney CR. 1984. Transient Horner's syndrome following routine intravenous injections in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:802. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Green SL, Cochrane SM, Smith-Maxie L. 1992. Horner's syndrome in ten horses. Can Vet J 33:330. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Mayhew IG. 1980. Horner's syndrome and lesions involving the sympathetic nervous system. Equine Pract 2:44.
  14. White PL, Genetzky RM, Pohlenz JFL, et al. 1984. Neuritis of the cauda equina in a horse. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 6:S217.
  15. Guard CL, Rebhun WC, Perdrizet JA. 1984. Cranial tumors in aged cattle causing Horner's syndrome and exophthalmos. Cornell Vet 74:361. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Bacon CL, Davidson HJ, Yvorchuk K, et al. 1996. Bilateral Horner's syndrome secondary to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a horse. Equine Vet J 28:500. PUBMED Abstract
  17. van der Wiel HL, van Gijn J. 1987. No enophthalmos in Horner's syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50:498. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Robertshaw D, Taylor CR. 1969. Sweat gland function of the donkey (Equus asinus). J Physiol 205:79. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Smith JS, Mayhew IG. 1977. Horner's syndrome in large animals. Cornell Vet 67:529.
  20. Dahlberg JA, Ross MW, Martin BB, et al. 2011. Clinical relevance of abnormal scintigraphic findings of adult equine ribs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 52:573. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Purohit RC, McCoy MD, Bergfeld WA. 1980. Thermographic diagnosis of Horner's syndrome in the horse. Am J Vet Res 41:1180. PUBMED Abstract

Guttural Pouch Mycosis

  1. Freeman DE, Hardy J. 2012. Guttural pouch, pp 623-642. In Auer JA, Stick JA (eds), Equine surgery, ed 4. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, MO.
  2. Ryan JA, Modransky PD, Welker B. 1992. Guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-month-old foal. Equine Pract 14:21.
  3. Ludwig A, Gatineau S, Reynaud MC, et al. 2005. Fungal isolation and identification in 21 cases of guttural pouch mycosis in horses (1998-2002). Vet J 169:457. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Guillot J, Collobert C, Gueho E, et al. 1997. Emericella nidulans as an agent of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse. J Med Vet Mycol 35:433. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Cook WR, Campbell RS, Dawson C. 1968. Pathology and aetiology of guttural pouch mycosis in the horse. Vet Rec 83:422. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Hilbert BL, Huxtable CR, Brighton AJ. 1981. Erosion of the internal carotid-artery and cranial nerve damage caused by guttural pouch mycosis in a horse. Aust Vet J 57:346. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Johnson JH, Merriam JG, Attleber M. 1973. Guttural pouch mycosis caused by Aspergillus nidulans. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 68:771. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Ernst NS, Freeman DE, MacKay RJ. 2006. Progression of mycosis of the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch) after arterial occlusion in a horse with contralateral temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:1945. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Boucher WB, Elliott GA, Schmucker B. 1964. Epistaxis due to rupture of aneurysm in horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 145:1004. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Lingard DR, Gosser HS, Monfort TN. 1974. Acute epistaxis associated with guttural pouch mycosis in 2 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 164:1038. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Hunter B, Nation PN. 2011. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt. Can Vet J 52:1339. PUBMED Abstract
  12. McLaughlin BG, O'Brien J L. 1986. Gutteral pouch mycosis and mycotic encephalitis in a horse. Can Vet J 27:109. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Lepage OM, Piccot-Crezollet C. 2005. Transarterial coil embolisation in 31 horses (1999-2002) with guttural pouch mycosis: a 2-year follow-up. Equine Vet J 37:430. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Greet TRC. 1987. Outcome of treatment in 35 cases of guttural pouch mycosis. Equine Vet J 19:483. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Freeman DE, Naylor JM. 1978. Cervical esophagostomy to permit extra-oral feeding of the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:314. PUBMED Abstract

Listeriosis (Circling Disease; Silage Disease; Listeria monocytogenes Infection)

  1. Scott PR. 1993. A field study of ovine listerial meningoencephalitis with particular reference to cerebrospinal fluid analysis as an aid to diagnosis and prognosis. Br Vet J 149:165. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Gitter M. 1983. Veterinary aspects of listeriosis. PHLS Microbiol Dig 6:38.
  3. Akpavie SO, Ikheloa JO. 1992. An outbreak of listeriosis in cattle in Nigeria. Revue d'Elevage Medecine Veterinaire Pays Tropicaux 45:263. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Bryner J, Wesley I, Van der Maaten M. 1989. Research on listeriosis in milk cows with intramammary inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes. Acta Microbiol Hung 36:137. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Vandegraaff R, Borland NA, Browning JW. 1981. An outbreak of listerial meningoencephalitis in sheep. Aust Vet J 57:94. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Rebhun WC, de Lahunta A. 1982. Diagnosis and treatment of bovine listeriosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:395. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Gates GA, Blenden DC, Kintner LD. 1967. Listeric myelitis in sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 150:200. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Seaman JT, Carrigan MJ, Cockram FA. 1990. An outbreak of listerial myelitis in sheep. Aust Vet J. 67:142. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Evans K, Smith M, McDonough P, et al. 2004. Eye infections due to Listeria monocytogenes in three cows and one horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 16:464. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Scarratt WK. 1987. Ovine listeric encephalitis. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 9:F28.
  11. Grottker S. 1985. Liquor-Untersuchungen bei der listerienbedingten meningoenzephalitis des rindes. DTW 92:257. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Charlton KM, Garcia MM. 1967. Spontaneous listeric encephalitis and neuritis in sheep: light microscopic studies. Vet Pathol 14:297. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Otter A, Blakemore WF. 1989. Observation on the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in axons. Acta Microbiol Hung 36:125. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Otter A, Blakemore WF. 1989. Observations on the neural transport of Listeria monocytogenes in a mouse model. Neuropathol Appl Neurol 15:590.
  15. Barlow RM, McGorum B. 1985. Ovine listerial encephalitis: analysis, hypothesis, and synthesis. Vet Rec 116:233. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Low JC, Donachie W. 1991. Clinical and serum antibody responses of lambs to infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Res Vet Sci 51:185. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Osebold JW. 1963. Second Symposium on Listeric Infection. Artcraft Printers, Bozeman, MT.
  18. Du Toit IF. 1977. An outbreak of caprine listeriosis in the western Cape. J S Afr Vet Assoc 48:39. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Gronstol H. 1979. Listeriosis in sheep: Listeria monocytogenes excretion and immunological state in sheep in flocks with clinical listeriosis. Acta Vet Scand 20:417. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Gronstol H. 1979. Listeriosis in sheep Listeria monocytogenes excretion and immunological state in healthy sheep. Acta Vet Scand 20:168.
  21. Gronstol H. 1980. Listeriosis in sheep: isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from organs of slaughtered animals and dead animals submitted for postmortem examination. Acta Vet Scand 21:11. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Killinger AH, Mansfield ME. 1970. Epizootiology of listeric infection in sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 157:1318. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Irvin AD. 1968. The effect of pH on the multiplication of Listeria monocytogenes in grass silage media. Vet Rec 131:115.
  24. Gronstol H. 1979. Listeriosis in sheep: isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from grass silage. Acta Vet Scand 20:492. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Green LE, Morgan KL. 1994. Descriptive epidemiology of listerial meningoencephalitis in housed lambs. Prev Vet Med 18:79.
  26. Gronstol H. 1985. Listeriosis in Norway. Annu Proc Sheep Vet Soc 9:54.
  27. Vazquez-Boland JA, Dominquez L, Blanco M, et al. 1992. Epidemiologic investigation of a silage-associated epizootic of ovine listeric encephalitis using a new Listeria-selective enumeration medium and phage typing. Am J Vet Res 53:368. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Ladds PW, Dennis SM, Njoku CO. 1974. Pathology of listeric infection in domestic animals. Vet Bull 44:67.

Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis (Histophilus somni [formerly Haemophilus somnus] Infection; Sleeper Calves)

  1. Stephens LR, Little PB. 1981. Ultrastructure of Haemophilus somnus, causative agent of bovine infectious thromboembolic meningoencephalitis. Am J Vet Res 42:1638. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Hazlett MJ, Little PB. 1983. Experimental production of mastitis with Haemophilus somnus in the lactating bovine mammary gland. Can Vet J 24:135. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Klavano GG. 1980. Observations of Haemophilus somnus infection as an agent producing reproductive diseases: infertility and abortion. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society of Theriogenology, Sept 10-12, Omaha, NE.
  4. Keister MD. 1981. Haemophilus somnus infections in cattle. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 3:260.
  5. Griffin D, Chengappa MM, Kuszak J, et al. 2010. Bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin N Am Food Anim Pract 26:381. PUBMED Abstract
  6. D'Amours GH, Ward TI, Mulvey MR, et al. 2011. Genetic diversity and tetracycline resistance genes of Histophilus somni. Vet Microbiol 150:362. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Panciera RJ, Dahlgren RR, Rinker HB. 1968. Observations on septicemia of cattle caused by a Haemophilus-like organism. Pathol Vet 5:212. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Crandell RA, Smith AR, Kissil M. 1977. Colonization and transmission of Haemophilus somnus in cattle. Am J Vet Res 38:1749. PUBMED Abstract
  9. MacDonald DW, Christian RG, Chalmers GA. 1973. Infectious thromboembolic meningoencephalitis: literature review and occurrence in Alberta, 1969-71. Can Vet J 14:57. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Bailie WE, Anthony HD, Weide KD. 1966. Infectious thromboembolic meningoencephalomyelitis (sleeper syndrome) in feedlot cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 148:162. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Nayar PSG, Ward GE, Saunders JR, et al. 1977. Diagnostic procedures in experimental Haemophilus somnus infection in cattle. Can Vet J 18:159. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Stephens LR, Little PB, Wilkie BN, et al. 1981. Humoral immunity in experimental thromboembolic meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by Haemophilus somnus. Am J Vet Res 42:468. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Beeman K. Haemophilus somnus of cattle: an overview. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 1985;7:S259.
  14. Dewey KJ, Little PB. 1984. Environmental survival of Haemophilus somnus and influence of secretions and excretions. Can J Comp Med 48:23. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Booker CW, Guichon PT, Jim GK, et al. 1999. Seroepidemiology of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada. Can Vet J 40:40. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Jensen R, Lauerman LH, Braddy PM, et al. 1980. Laryngeal contact ulcers in feedlot cattle. Vet Pathol 17:667. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Davidson JN, Carpenter TE, Hjerpe CA. 1981. An example of an economic decision analysis approach to the problem of thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (TEME) in feedlot cattle. Cornell Vet 71:383. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Stephens LR, Little PB, Wilkie BN. 1984. Isolation of Haemophilus somnus antigens and their use as vaccines for prevention of bovine thromboembolic meningoencephalitis. Am J Vet Res 45:234. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Williams JM, Smith GL, Murdock FM. 1978. Immunogenicity of a Haemophilus somnus bacterin in cattle. Am J Vet Res 39:1756. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Stephens LR, Little PB, Humphrey JD, et al. 1982. Vaccination of cattle against experimentally induced thromboembolic meningoencephalitis with a Haemophilus somnus bacterin. Am J Vet Res 43:1119. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Janzen ED, McManus RF. 1980. Observations on the use of a long-acting oxytetracycline for in-contact prophylaxis of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feedlot steers under Canadian conditions. Bovine Pract 15:87.

Otitis Media-Interna of Ruminants

  1. Jensen R, Piersen RE, Weibel JL, et al. 1982. Middle ear infection in feedlot lambs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 181:805. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Nation PN, Frelier PF, Gifford GA, et al. 1983. Otitis in feedlot cattle. Can Vet J 24:238. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Jensen R, Maki LR, Laurman LH, et al. 1983. Cause and pathogenesis of middle ear infection in young feedlot cattle. Am J Vet Res 182:967. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Walz PH, Mullaney TP, Render JA, et al. 1997. Otitis media in preweaned Holstein dairy calves in Michigan due to Mycoplasma bovis. J Vet Diagn Invest 9:250. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Vestweber JG. 1999. Otitis media-interna in cattle. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 21:S34.
  6. Gosselin VB, Francoz D, Babkine M, et al. 2012. A retrospective study of 29 cases of otitis media/interna in dairy calves. Can Vet J 53:957. PUBMED Abstract

Ear Mite Infestations of Ruminants

  1. Heffner RS, Heffner HE. 1983. Effect of cattle ear mite infestation on hearing in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:612. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Ladds PW, Copeman DB, Daniels P, et al. 1972. Raillieta auris and otitis media in cattle in northern Queensland. Aust Vet J 48:532. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Olsen OW, Bracken FK. 1950. Occurrence of the ear mite Raillieta auris (Leidy, 1872) in cattle in Colorado. Vet Med 45:320. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Jubb TF, Vassallo RL, Wroth RH. 1993. Suppurative otitis in cattle associated with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Aust Vet J 70:354. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Msolla P, Fatafu EPM, Monrad J. 1986. Epidemiology of bovine parasitic otitis. J Trop Anim Health Prod 18:51. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Bates PG. 1996. Epidemiology of subclinical ovine psoroptic otoacariasis in Great Britain. Vet Rec 138:388. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Kambarage DM, Kusiluka LJM. 1997. Parasitic otitis associated with Psoroptes infestation in goats. J Appl Anim Res 12:173.
  8. Da Costa LA, Cerqueira Leite R, Faccini H. 1992. Preliminary investigations on transmission and life cycle of the ear mites of the genus Raillietia trouessart (Acari: Gamasida) parasites of cattle. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87(suppl 1):97. PUBMED Abstract

Diseases Producing Tremors and Ataxia; Cerebellar Diseases

Cerebellar Abiotrophy of Arabian Foals

  1. Palmer AC, Blakemore WF, Cook WR, et al. 1973. Cerebellar hypoplasia and degeneration in the young Arab horse: clinical and neuropathological features. Vet Rec 93:62. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Fox J, Duncan R, Friday P, et al. 2000. Cerebello-olivary and lateral (accessory) cuneate degeneration in a juvenile American Miniature Horse. Vet Pathol 37:271. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Brosnahan MM, Holbrook TC, Ritchey JW. 2009. Neuroaxonal dystrophy associated with cerebellar dysfunction in a 5-month-old Pony of the Americas colt. J Vet Intern Med 23:1303. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Legonidec G, Kuberski T, Daynes P, et al. 1981. A neurologic disease of horses in New Caledonia. Aust Vet J 57:194. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Kirkpatrick JG, Burrows GE. 1990. Locoism in horses. Vet Hum Toxicol 32:168. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Huxtable CR, Dorling PR. 1982. Poisoning of livestock by Swainsona spp.—current status. Aust Vet J 59:50. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Loretti AP, Colodel EM, Gimeno EJ, et al. 2003. Lysosomal storage disease in Sida carpinifolia toxicosis: an induced mannosidosis in horses. Equine Vet J 35:434. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Delahunta A. 1990. Abiotrophy in domestic-animals—a review. Can J Vet Res 54:65. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Debowes RM, Leipold HW, Turnerbeatty M. 1987. Cerebellar abiotrophy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 3:345. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Bjorck G, Everz KE, Hansen HJ, et al. 1973. Congenital cerebellar ataxia in the Gotland pony breed. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 20:341. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Blanco A, Moyano R, Vivo J, et al. 2006. Purkinje cell apoptosis in Arabian horses with cerebellar abiotrophy. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 53:286. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Brault LS, Cooper CA, Famula TR, et al. 2011. Mapping of equine cerebellar abiotrophy to ECA2 and identification of a potential causative mutation affecting expression of MUTYH. Genomics 97:121. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Brault LS, Famula TR, Penedo MCT. 2011. Inheritance of cerebellar abiotrophy in Arabians. Am J Vet Res 72:940. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Brault LS, Penedo MCT. 2011. The frequency of the equine cerebellar abiotrophy mutation in non-Arabian horse breeds. Equine Vet J 43:727. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Baird JD, Mackenzi CD. 1974. Cerebellar hypoplasia and degeneration in part Arab horses. Aust Vet J 50:25. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Turner Beatty M, Leipold HW, Cash W, et al. 1985. Cerebellar disease in the horse. Proc AAEP 21:241.
  17. Dungworth DL, Fowler ME. 1966. Cerebellar hypoplasia and degeneration in a foal. Cornell Vet 56:17. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Pongratz MC, Kircher P, Lang J, et al. 2010. Diagnostic evaluation of a foal with cerebellar abiotrophy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pferdeheilkunde 26:559.

Cerebellar Hypoplasia Caused by Congenital Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection

  1. Brown TT, Copeman DB, Daniels P, et al. 1974. Pathogenetic studies of infection of the bovine fetus with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Pathol 11:486. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Done JT, Terlicki S, Richardson C, et al. 1980. Bovine virus diarrhoea–mucosal disease virus: pathogenicity for the fetal calf following maternal infection. Vet Rec 106:473. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Straver PJ, Journee DLH, Blinkhorst GJ. 1983. Neurological disorders, virus persistence, and hypomyelination in calves due to intrauterine infections with bovine virus diarrhea virus. Vet Q 5:156.
  4. Bielefeldt-Ohmann H. 1984. An oculocerebellar syndrome caused by congenital bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection. Acta Vet Scand 25:36. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Wilson TM, de Lahunta A, Confer L. 1983. Cerebellar degeneration in dairy calves: clinical, pathologic, and serologic features of an epizootic caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:544. PUBMED Abstract

Storage Diseases and Inborn Errors of Metabolism

  1. Gundlach AL, Kortz G, Burazin TCD, et al. 1993. Deficit of inhibitory glycine receptors in spinal-cord from Peruvian Pasos—evidence for an equine form of inherited myoclonus. Brain Res 628:263. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Seahorn TL, Fuentealba IC, Illanes OG, et al. 1991. Congenital encephalomyelopathy in a Quarter Horse. Equine Vet J 23:394. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Page P, Parker R, Harper C, et al. 2006. Clinical, clinicopathologic, postmortem examination findings and familial history of 3 Arabians with lavender foal syndrome. J Vet Intern Med 20:1491. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Fanelli HH. 2005. Coat colour dilution lethal (“lavender foal syndrome”): a tetany syndrome of Arabian foals. Equine Vet Educ 17:260.
  5. Bierman A, Guthrie AJ, Harper CK. 2010. Lavender foal syndrome in Arabian horses is caused by a single-base deletion in the myo5a gene. Animal Genetics 41:199.
  6. Brooks SA, Gabreski N, Miller D, et al. 2010. Whole-genome snp association in the horse: Identification of a deletion in myosin va responsible for lavender foal syndrome. Plos Genetics 6. PUBMED Abstract
  7. McCabe L, Griffin LD, Kinzer A, et al. 1990. Overo lethal white foal syndrome—equine model of aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease). Am J Med Genet 36:336. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Parry N. 2006. Overo lethal white foal syndrome. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 28:172.
  9. Santschi EM, Vrotsos PD, Purdy AK, et al. 2001. Incidence of the endothelin receptor B mutation that causes lethal white foal syndrome in white-patterned horses. Am J Vet Res 62:97. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Metallinos DL, Bowling AT, Rine J. 1998. A missense mutation in the endothelin-B receptor gene is associated with lethal white foal syndrome: an equine version of Hirschsprung disease. Mamm Genome 9:426. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Tryon RC, Penedo MC, McCue ME, et al. 2009. Evaluation of allele frequencies of inherited disease genes in subgroups of American Quarter Horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:120. PUBMED Abstract

Locoism (Swainsonine Toxicity)

  1. Dantas AFM, Riet-Correa F, Gardner DR, et al. 2007. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in northeastern Brazil. Toxicon 49:111. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Loretti AP, Colodel EM, Gimeno EJ, et al. 2003. Lysosomal storage disease in Sida carpinifolia toxicosis: An induced mannosidosis in horses. Equine Vet J 35:434. PUBMED Abstract
  3. de Balogh KK, Dimande AP, van der Lugt JJ, et al. 1999. A lysosomal storage disease induced by Ipomoea carnea in goats in Mozambique. J Vet Diagn Invest 11:266. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Kirkpatrick JG, Burrows GE. 1990. Locoism in horses. Vet Hum Toxicol 32:168-169. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Molyneux RJ, James LF, Panter KE. 1986. Occurrence and detection of swainsonine in locoweeds (Astragalus species and Oxytropis species). J Toxicol Toxin Rev 5:255.
  6. Tulsiani DRP, Broquist HP, James LF, et al. 1984. The similar effects of swainsonine and locoweed on tissue glycosidases and oligosaccharides of the pig indicate that the alkaloid is the principal toxin responsible for the induction of locoism. Arch Biochem Biophys 232:76. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Harries WN, Baker FP, Johnston A. 1972. Case report. An outbreak of locoweed poisoning in horses in southwestern Alberta. Can Vet J 13:141. PUBMED Abstract
  8. James LF, Van Kampen KR, Staker GR. 1969. Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) poisoning in cattle and horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:525. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Nollet H, Panter K, Vanschandevijl K, et al. 2008. Suspected swainsonine poisoning in a Belgian horse. Equine Vet Educ 20:62.
  10. Pfister JA, Stegelmeier BL, Gardner DR, et al. 2003. Grazing of spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) by cattle and horses in Arizona. J Anim Sci 81:2285. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Ralphs MH, Panter KE, James LF. 1990. Feed preferences and habituation of sheep poisoned by locoweed. J Anim Sci 68:1354. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Dorling PR, Huxtable CR, Colegate SM. 1980. Inhibition of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase by swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid isolated from Swainsona canescens. Biochem J 191:649. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Cook D, Grum DS, Gardner DR, et al. 2013. Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea. Toxicon 61:105. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Braun K, Romero J, Liddell C, et al. 2003. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycol Res 107:980. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Croom WJ, Hagler WM, Froetschel MA, et al. 1995. The involvement of slaframine and swainsonine in slobbers syndrome—a review. J Anim Sci 73:1499. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Knight AP. 1987. Locoweed poisoning. Compend Contin Educ Vet 9:F418.
  17. Bottger JA, Creamer R, Gardner D. 2012. Seasonal changes in Undifilum colonization and swainsonine content of locoweeds. J Chem Ecol 38:486. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Loretti AP, Colodel EM, Gimeno EJ, et al. 2003. Lysosomal storage disease in Sida carpinifolia toxicosis: an induced mannosidosis in horses. Equine Vet J 35:434. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Dorling PR, Huxtable CR, Vogel P. 1978. Lysosomal storage in Swainsona spp. toxicosis: an induced mannosidosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4:285. PUBMED Abstract
  20. James LF, Hartley WJ. 1977. Effects of milk from animals fed locoweed on kittens, calves, and lambs. Am J Vet Res 38:1263. PUBMED Abstract
  21. James LF, Keeler RF, Binns W. 1969. Sequence in the abortive and teratogenic effects of locoweed fed to sheep. Am J Vet Res 30:377. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Panter KE, James LF, Nielson D, et al. 1988. The relationship of Oxytropis sericea (green and dry) and Astragalus lentiginosus with high mountain disease in cattle. Vet Hum Toxicol 30:318. PUBMED Abstract
  23. James LF, Van Kampen KR. 1971. Effects of locoweed intoxication on the genital tract of the ram. Am J Vet Res 32:1253. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Ashley AK, Custis M, Ashley R, et al. 2006. Toxicokinetic profile of swainsonine following exposure to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in naive and previously-exposed sheep. NZ Vet J 54:34. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Stegelmeier BL, James LF, Panter KE, et al. 1995. Serum swainsonine concentration and alpha-mannosidase activity in cattle and sheep ingesting oxytropis-sericea and Astragalus lentiginosus (locoweeds). Am J Vet Res 56:149. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Loretti AP, Colodel EM, Gimeno EJ, et al. 2003. Lysosomal storage disease in Sida carpinifolia toxicosis: an induced mannosidosis in horses. Equine Vet J 5:434. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Alroy J, Orgad U, Ucci AA, et al. 1985. Swainsonine toxicosis mimics lectin histochemistry of mannosidosis. Vet Pathol 22:311. PUBMED Abstract
  28. James LF, Vankampe Kr. 1971. Acute and residual lesions of locoweed poisoning in cattle and horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:614. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Staley EE. 1978. An approach to treatment of locoism in horses. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 73:1205. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Bachman SE, Galyean ML, Smith GS, et al. 1992. Early aspects of locoweed toxicosis and evaluation of a mineral supplement or clinoptilolite as dietary treatments. J Anim Sci 70:3125. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Pfister JA, Stegelmeier BL, Cheney CD, et al. 2002. Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses. J Anim Sci 80:79. PUBMED Abstract

Staggers Syndromes (Grass Staggers)

  1. Cole RJ, Dorner JW. 1986. Role of fungal tremorgens in animal disease, pp 501-511. In Steyn PS,Vleggaar R (eds), Mycotoxins and phycotoxins. Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam.
  2. Nicholson SS. 1989. Tremorgenic syndromes in livestock. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 5:291. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Imlach WL, Finch SC, Dunlop J, et al. 2008. The molecular mechanism of “ryegrass staggers,” a neurological disorder of K+ channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:657. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, et al. 1994. Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth-muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry 33:5819. PUBMED Abstract
  5. di Menna ME, Finch SC, Popay AJ, et al. 2012. A review of the Neotyphodium lolii/Lolium perenne symbiosis and its associated effects on animal and plant health, with particular emphasis on ryegrass staggers. N Z Vet J 60:315. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Galey FD, Tracy ML, Craigmill AL, et al. 1991. Staggers induced by consumption of perennial ryegrass in cattle and sheep from northern California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:466. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Hunt LD, Blythe L, Holtan DW. 1983. Ryegrass staggers in ponies fed processed ryegrass straw. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:285. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Odriozola E, Lopez T, Campero C, et al. 1993. Ryegrass staggers in heifers—a new mycotoxicosis in Argentina. Vet Hum Toxicol 35:144. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Reed KFM, Nie ZN, Walker LV, et al. 2011. Weather and pasture characteristics associated with outbreaks of perennial ryegrass toxicosis in southern Australia. Anim Prod Sci 51:738.
  10. Gallagher RT, Hawkes AD, Steyn PS, et al. 1984. Tremorgenic neurotoxins from perennial ryegrass causing ryegrass staggers disorder of livestock—structure elucidation of lolitrem B. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 614.
  11. Johnstone LK, Mayhew IG, Fletcher LR. 2012. Clinical expression of lolitrem B (perennial ryegrass) intoxication in horses. Equine Vet J 44:304-309. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Moate PJ, Williams SRO, Grainger C, et al. 2012. Effects of wild-type, AR1 and AR37 endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass on dairy production in Victoria, Australia. Anim Prod Sci 52:1117.
  13. Cunningham IJ, Hartley WJ. 1959. Ryegrass staggers. NZ Vet J 7:1-7.
  14. Moyano MR, Molina AM, Lora AJ, et al. 2010. Tremorgenic mycotoxicosis caused by Paspalum paspaloides (Michx.) Scribner infected by Claviceps paspali: a case report. Vet Med (Praha) 55:336.
  15. Botha CJ, Kellerman TS, Fourie N. 1996. A tremorgenic mycotoxicosis in cattle caused by Paspalum distichum (L) infected by Claviceps paspali. J S Afr Vet Assoc 67:36. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Cysewski SJ. 1973. Paspalum staggers and tremorgen intoxication in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163:1291. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Grayson AR. 1941. Paspalum ergotism in cattle. J Dept Agric 39:441.
  18. Hopkirk CSM. 1936. Paspalum staggers. NZ J Agric 53:105.
  19. Simms BT. 1945. Dallis grass poisoning. Auburn Vet 76:64.
  20. Cawdell-Smith AJ, Scrivener CJ, Bryden WL. 2010. Staggers in horses grazing paspalum infected with Claviceps paspali. Aust Vet J 88:393. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Cole RJ, Dorner JW, Lansden JA, et al. 1977. Paspalum staggers—isolation and identification of tremorgenic metabolites from sclerotia of Claviceps paspali. J Agric Food Chem 25:1197. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Uhlig S, Botha CJ, Vralstad T, et al. 2009. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle. J Agric Food Chem 57:11112. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Killibrew FL, Seger CL, Rusoff LL, et al. 1972. Research report on Bermuda grass tremors: Louisiana State University Agricultural Experimental Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
  24. Whitehair CK, Young HC, Gibson Me, et al. 1951. A nervous disturbance in cattle caused by a toxic substance associated with mature Bermuda grass. Okla Agric Exp Stn Feeder's Day Rep 22:57.
  25. Day JB, Mantle PG. 1980. Tremorgenic forage and ryegrass staggers. Vet Rec 106:463. PUBMED Abstract
  26. McKenzie RA, Kelly MA, Shivas RG, et al. 2004. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains. Aust Vet J 82:635. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Loretti AP, Colodel EM, Driemeier D, et al. 2003. Neurological disorder in dairy cattle associated with consumption of beer residues contaminated with Aspergillus clavatus. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:123. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Lanigan GW, Payne AL, Cockrum PA. 1979. Production of tremorgenic toxins by Penicillium janthinellum Biourge: a possible aetiological factor in ryegrass staggers. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 57:31. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Mantle PG, Mortimer PH, White EP. 1978. Mycotoxic tremorgens of Claviceps paspali and Penicillium cyclopium: a comparative study of effects on sheep and cattle in relation to natural staggers syndromes. Res Vet Sci 24:49. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Morgavi DP, Riley RT. 2007. An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Anim Feed Sci Technol 137:201.
  31. Galloway JH. 1961. Grass seed nematode poisoning in livestock. J Am Vet Med Assoc 139:1212. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Riley IT, Gregory AR, Aleen JG, et al. 2003. Poisoning of livestock in Oregon in the 1940s to 1960s attributed to corynetoxins produced by Rathayibacter in nematode galls in chewings fescue (Festuca nigrescens). Vet Hum Toxicol 45:160. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Bertozzi T, McKay AC. 1995. Incidence on Polypogon monspeliensis of Clavibacter toxicus and Anguina sp, the organisms associated with flood-plain staggers in South Australia. Aust J Exp Agric 35:567.
  34. Bourke CA, Carrigan MJ, Love SCJ. 1992. Flood-plain staggers, a tunicaminyluracil toxicosis of cattle in northern New South Wales. Aust Vet J 69:228. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Davis EO, Curran GE, Hetherington WT, et al. 1995. Clinical, pathological and epidemiologic aspects of flood-plain staggers, a corynetoxicosis of livestock grazing Agrostis avenacea. Aust Vet J 72:187. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Finnie JW. 2006. Review of corynetoxins poisoning of livestock, a neurological disorder produced by a nematode-bacterium complex. Aust Vet J 84:271. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Masters AM, Gregory AR, Evans RJ, et al. 2006. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Rathayibacter toxicus, the bacterium involved in annual ryegrass toxicity, in hay. Aust J Agric Res 57:731.
  38. Grewar JD, Allen JG, Guthrie AJ. 2009. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:220. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Creeper JH, Vale W, Walsh R. 1996. Annual ryegrass toxicosis in horses. Aust Vet J 74:465. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Richards IS. 1982. The effect of magnesium sulfate on convulsions induced by annual ryegrass toxicity. Aust Vet J 58:115. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Bourke CA. 2007. A review of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) poisoning in cattle. Aust Vet J 85:261. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Bourke CA. 1994. The clinico-toxicological differentiation of Phalaris spp. toxicity syndromes in ruminants, pp 523-528. In Colegate SM, Dorling PR (eds), Plant-associated toxins: agricultural, phytochemical and ecological aspects. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  43. Bourke CA, Carrigan MJ. 1992. Mechanisms underlying Phalaris aquatica “sudden death” syndrome in sheep. Aust Vet J 69:165. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Bourke CA, Carrigan MJ, Dixon RJ. 1990. The pathogenesis of the nervous syndrome of Phalaris aquatica toxicity in sheep. Aust Vet J 67:356. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Binder EM, Blodgett DJ, Currin JF, et al. 2010. Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) grass staggers in beef cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:802. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Bourke CA, Colegate SM, Slattery S, et al. 2003. Suspected Phalaris paradoxa (paradoxa grass) poisoning in horses. Aust Vet J 81:635. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Colegate SM, Anderton N, Edgar J, et al. 1999. Suspected blue canary grass (Phalaris coerulescens) poisoning of horses. Aust Vet J 77:537. PUBMED Abstract
  48. East NE, Higgins RJ. 1988. Canary grass (Phalaris sp.) toxicosis in sheep in California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:667. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Lean IJ, Anderson M, Kerfoot MG, et al. 1989. Tryptamine alkaloid toxicosis in feedlot sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:768. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Nicholson SS, Olcott BM, Usenik EA, et al. 1989. Delayed Phalaris grass toxicosis in sheep and cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:345. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Anderton N, Cockrum PA, Walker DW, et al. 1994. Identification of a toxin suspected of causing death in livestock grazing Phalaris pastures, pp 269-274. In Colegate SM, Dorling PR (eds), Plant-associated toxins agricultural, phytochemical and ecological aspects. CAB International, Farnham Royal, Slough, UK.
  52. Moore RM, Williams JD, Chia J. 1967. Factors affecting concentrations of dimethylated indolealkylamines in Phalaris tuberosa. Aust J Biol Sci 20:1131. PUBMED Abstract
  53. de Sousa RS, Irigoyen LF. 1999. Experimental poisoning by Phalaris angusta (Gramineae) in cattle. Pesqui Vet Bras 19:116.
  54. Tosi HR, Wittenberg KM. 1993. Harvest alternatives to reduce the alkaloid content of reed canary grass forage. Can J Anim Sci 73:373.
  55. Gallagher CH, Koch JH, Hoffman H. 1966. Diseases of sheep due to ingestion of Phalaris tuberosa. Aust Vet J 42:279. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Mendel VE, Crenshaw GL, Baker NF, et al. 1969. Staggers in pastured cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 154:769. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Skerritt JH, Guihot SL, McDonald SE, et al. 2000. Development of immunoassays for tyramine and tryptamine toxins of Phalaris aquatica. J Agric Food Chem 48:27. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Lee HJ, Kuchler E, Good BF, et al. 1957. The aetiology of Phalaris staggers in sheep. Iii. The preventative effect of various oral dose rates of cobalt. Aust J Agric Res 8:494.
  59. Lee HJ, Kuchel RE. 1953. The aetiology of Phalaris staggers in sheep. 1. Preliminary observations on the preventive role of cobalt. Aust J Agric Res 4:88.

Diseases Presenting Principally with Spinal Cord or Peripheral Nerve Signs

Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy

  1. Anonymous. Equine herpesvirus (EHV) myeloencephalopathy. A guide to understanding the neurologic form of EHV infection: United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 2008.
  2. Donaldson MT, Sweeney CR. 1998. Herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses: 11 cases (1982-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:671. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Wilson WD. 1997. Equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:53. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Ostlund EN. 1993. The equine herpesviruses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9:283. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Friday PA, Scarratt WK, Elvinger F, et al. 2000. Ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school horses. J Vet Intern Med 14:197. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Henninger RW, Reed SM, Saville WJ, et al. 2007. Outbreak of neurologic disease caused by equine herpesvirus-1 at a university equestrian center. J Vet Intern Med 21:157. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Goehring LS, van Winden SC, van Maanen C, et al. 2006. Equine herpesvirus type 1-associated myeloencephalopathy in the Netherlands: a four-year retrospective study (1999-2003). J Vet Intern Med 20:601. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Barbic L, Lojkic I, Stevanovic V, et al. 2012. Two outbreaks of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 with breed-dependent clinical signs. Vet Rec 170:227. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Pronost S, Legrand L, Pitel PH, et al. 2012. Outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in France: a clinical and molecular investigation. Transbound Emerg Dis 59:256. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Donaldson MT, Sweeney CR. 1997. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy. Compend Cont Educ (Pract Vet) 19:864.
  11. Kydd JH, Slater J, Osterrieder N, et al. 2012. Third international Havemeyer workshop on equine herpesvirus type 1. Equine Vet J 44:513. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Lunn DP, Davis-Poynter N, Flaminio MJ, et al. 2009. Equine herpesvirus-1 consensus statement. J Vet Intern Med 23:450. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Wilson WD. 2008. Diagnostic sensitivity of nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs for the molecular detection of EHV-1. Vet Rec 162:520. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Slater J. 2007. Equine herpesviruses, pp 134-152. In Sellon DC, Long MT (eds), Equine infectious diseases. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  15. Drummer HE, Reynolds A, Studdert MJ, et al. 1995. Application of an equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV1) type-specific ELISA to the management of an outbreak of EHV1 abortion. Vet Rec 136:579. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Allen GP. 2008. Risk factors for development of neurologic disease after experimental exposure to equine herpesvirus-1 in horses. Am J Vet Res 69:1595. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Nugent J, Birch-Machin I, Smith KC, et al. 2006. Analysis of equid herpesvirus 1 strain variation reveals a point mutation of the DNA polymerase strongly associated with neuropathogenic versus nonneuropathogenic disease outbreaks. J Virol 80:4047. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Perkins GA, Goodman LB, Tsujimura K, et al. 2009. Investigation of the prevalence of neurologic equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) in a 23-year retrospective analysis (1984-2007). Vet Microbiol 139:375. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Traub-Dargatz JL, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Creekmore LH, et al. 2013. Case-control study of a multistate equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy outbreak. J Vet Intern Med 27:339. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Wademan C, et al. 2012. Investigation of the role of mules as silent shedders of EHV-1 during an outbreak of EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy in California. Vet Rec 170:465. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Burgess BA, Tokateloff N, Manning S, et al. 2012. Nasal shedding of equine herpesvirus-1 from horses in an outbreak of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in western Canada. J Vet Intern Med 26:384. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Whitwell KE, Blunden AS. 1992. Pathological findings in horses dying during an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection. Equine Vet J 24:13. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Charlton KM, Mitchell D, Girard A, et al. 1976. Meningoencephalomyelitis in horses associated with equine herpesvirus 1 infection. Vet Pathol 13:59. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Wong DM, Maxwell LK, Wilkins PA. 2010. Use of antiviral medications against equine herpes virus associated disorders. Equine Vet Educ 22:244.
  25. Maxwell LK, Bentz BG, Gilliam LL, et al. 2008. Efficacy of valacyclovir against clinical disease after EHV-1 challenge in aged mares. Proc AAEP 54:198.
  26. Goodman LB, Wagner B, Flaminio MJBF, et al. 2006. Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Vaccine 24:3636. PUBMED Abstract

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

  1. Dubey JP, Davis SW, Speer CA, et al. 1991. Sarcocystis neurona n. Sp. (protozoa: Apicomplexa), the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Parasitol 77:212. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Marsh AE, Barr BC, Packham AE, et al. 1998. Description of a new Neospora species (protozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). J Parasitol 84:983. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Saville WJA, et al. 2001. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet Parasitol 95:89.
  4. Stanek JF, Stich RW, Dubey JP, et al. 2003. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Vet Parasitol 117:239. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Dubey JP, Saville WJ, Stanek JF, et al. 2001. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): Evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons. Vet Parasitol 100:117. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Cheadle MA, Tanhauser SM, Dame JB, et al. 2001. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is an intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona. Int J Parasitol 31:330. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Cheadle MA, Yowell CA, Sellon DC, et al. 2001. The striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) is an intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona. Int J Parasitol 31:843. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Mullaney T, Murphy AJ, Kiupel M, et al. 2005. Evidence to support horses as natural intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis neurona. Vet Parasitol 133:27. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Pitel PH, Pronost S, Gargala G, et al. 2002. Detection of Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in French horses with neurological signs. Int J Parasitol 32:481. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Goehring LS, van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MMS. 2001. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the Netherlands? An overview. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 126:346. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Saville WJ, Reed SM, Morley PS, et al. 2000. Analysis of risk factors for the development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1174. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Fenger CK, Granstrom DE, Langemeier JL, et al. 1997. Epizootic of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis on a farm. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:923. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Bentz BG, Ealey KA, Morrow J, et al. 2003. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in equids residing in Oklahoma. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:597. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Vardeleon D, Marsh AE, Thorne JG, et al. 2001. Prevalence of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in horses from various geographical locations. Vet Parasitol 95:273. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Wendte JM, Miller MA, Lambourn DM, et al. 2010. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii. Plos Genetics 6:e1001261. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Cohen ND, MacKay RJ, Toby E, et al. 2007. A multicenter case-control study of risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1857. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Morley PS, Traub-Dargatz JL, Benedict KM, et al. 2008. Risk factors for owner-reported occurrence of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the US equine population. J Vet Intern Med 22:616. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Rossano MG, Kaneene JB, Marteniuk JV, et al. 2003. A herd-level analysis of risk factors for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids. Prev Vet Med 57:7. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Fayer R, Mayhew IG, Baird JD, et al. 1990. Epidemiology of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in North America based on histologically confirmed cases. A report. J Vet Intern Med 4:54. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Johnson AL, Morrow JK, Sweeney RW. 2013. Indirect fluorescent antibody test and surface antigen ELISAs for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Vet Intern Med 27:596. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Furr MO. 2008. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, pp 197-212. In Furr MO, Reed SM (eds), Equine neurology. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  22. Duarte PC, Ebel ED, Traub-Dargatz J, et al. 2006. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Am J Vet Res 67:869. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Reed S, Howe D, Morrow J, et al. 2013. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on detecting intrathecal antibodies against the Sarcocystis neurona surface antigens snSAG2, snSAG3, and snSAG4. J Vet Intern Med 27:1193.
  24. Saville WJA, Dubey JP, Oglesbee MJ, et al. 2004. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses. J Parasitol 90:1487. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Johnson AL, Burton AJ, Sweeney RW. 2010. Utility of 2 immunological tests for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (Sarcocystis neurona infection) in naturally occurring cases. J Vet Intern Med 24:1184.
  26. Daft BM, Barr BC, Gardner IA, et al. 2002. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:1007. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Duarte PC, Daft BM, Conrad PA, et al. 2003. Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:8. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Andrews FM, Geiser DR, Sommardahl CS, et al. 1994. Albumin quotient, IgG concentration, and IgG index determinations in cerebrospinal fluid of neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 55:741. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Furr M, Howe D, Reed S, et al. 2011. Antibody coefficients for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Vet Intern Med 25:138. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Marsh AE, Barr BC, Madigan J, et al. 1996. Sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification of small subunit ribosomal DNA from Sarcocystis neurona. Am J Vet Res 57:975. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Javsicas LH, Watson E, MacKay RJ. 2008. What is your neurologic diagnosis? Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:201. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Reed SM, Granstrom DE, Rivas LJ, et al. 1994. Results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in 119 horses testing positive to the Western blot test on serum and CSF to equine protozoal encephalomyelitis. Proc AAEP 41:199.
  33. Furr MO, Tyler RD. 1990. Cerebrospinal fluid creatine kinase activity in horses with central nervous system disease: 69 cases (1984-1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:245. PUBMED Abstract
  34. MacKay RJ. 2006. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: treatment, prognosis, and prevention. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:9.
  35. Reed SM, Wendel M, King S, et al. 2012. Pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in horses. Proc AAEP 58:572.
  36. Dirikolu L, Karpiesiuk W, Lehner AE, et al. 2006. New therapeutic approaches for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: pharmacokinetics of diclazuril sodium salts in horses. Vet Ther 7:52. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Lindsay DS, Rippey NS, Blagburn BL. 1995. Treatment of acute Toxoplasma gondii infections in mice with diclazuril or a combination of diclazuril and pyrimethamine. J Parasitol 81:315. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Ellison SP, Lindsay DS. 2012. Decoquinate combined with levamisole reduce the clinical signs and serum SAG 1, 5, 6 antibodies in horses with suspected equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 10:1.
  39. Lindsay DS, Nazir MM, Maqbool A, et al. 2013. Efficacy of decoquinate against Sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures. Vet Parasitol 196:21. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Piercy RJ, Hinchcliff KW, Reed SM. 2002. Folate deficiency during treatment with orally administered folic acid, sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine in a horse with suspected equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Equine Vet J 34:311. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Toribio RE, Bain FT, Mrad DR, et al. 1998. Congenital defects in newborn foals of mares treated for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis during pregnancy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:697. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Furr M, McKenzie H, Saville WJA, et al. 2006. Prophylactic administration of ponazuril reduces clinical signs and delays seroconversion in horses challenged with Sarcocystis neurona. J Parasitol 92:637. PUBMED Abstract
  43. MacKay RJ, Tanhauser ST, Gillis KD, et al. 2008. Effect of intermittent oral administration of ponazuril on experimental Sarcocystis neurona infection of horses. Am J Vet Res 69:396. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Dubey JP, Saville WJ, Sreekumar C, et al. 2002. Effects of high temperature and disinfectants on the viability of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts. J Parasitol 88:1252. PUBMED Abstract

Cervical Vertebral Stenotic Myelopathy

  1. Mayhew IG. 2008. Cervical and vertebral malformation and malarticulation of horses, pp 394-404. Large animal neurology, ed 2. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
  2. Oswald J, Love S, Parkin TD, et al. 2010. Prevalence of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in a population of Thoroughbred horses. Vet Rec 166:82. PUBMED Abstract
  3. McIlwraith CW. 2011. Developmental orthopedic disease, pp 772-781. In McKinnon AO, Squires EL, Vaala WE, et al (eds), Equine reproduction, ed 2. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA.
  4. Wagner PC, Grant BD, Watrous BJ, et al. 1985. A study of the heritability of cervical vertebral malformation in horses. AAEP Proc 31:43.
  5. Glade MJ, Reimers TJ. 1985. Effects of dietary energy supply on serum thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine and insulin concentrations in young horses. J Endocrinol 104:93. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Lepeule J, Seegers H, Rondeau V, et al. 2011. Risk factors for the presence and extent of developmental orthopaedic disease in the limbs of young horses: insights from a count model. Prev Vet Med 101:96. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Corbin LJ, Blott SC, Swinburne JE, et al. 2012. A genome-wide association study of osteochondritis dissecans in the Thoroughbred. Mamm Genome 23:294. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Knight DA, Gabel A, Reed SM, et al. 1985. Correlation of dietary mineral to incidence and severity of metabolic bone disease in Ohio and Kentucky. AAEP Proc 31:445.
  9. Vander Heyden L, Lejeune JP, Caudron I, et al. 2013. Association of breeding conditions with prevalence of osteochondrosis in foals. Vet Rec 3:68. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Mayhew IG, deLahunta A. 1978. Neuropathology. In Mayhew IG, deLahunta A, Whitlock RH, et al. (eds), Spinal cord disease in the horse. Cornell Vet 68(suppl 6):106. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Levine JM, Ngheim PP, Levine GJ, et al. 2008. Associations of sex, breed, and age with cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy in horses: 811 cases (1974-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1453. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Levine JM, Adam E, MacKay RJ, et al. 2007. Confirmed and presumptive cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy in older horses: a retrospective study (1992-2004). J Vet Intern Med 21:812. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Levine JM, Scrivani PV, Divers TJ, et al. 2010. Multicenter case-control study of signalment, diagnostic features, and outcome associated with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:812. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Moore BR, Reed SM, Biller DS, et al. 1994. Assessment of vertebral canal diameter and bony malformations of the cervical part of the spine in horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy. Am J Vet Res 55:5. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Hahn CN, Handel I, Green SL, et al. 2008. Assessment of the utility of using intra- and intervertebral minimum sagittal diameter ratios in the diagnosis of cervical vertebral malformation in horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49:1. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Mayhew IG, Donawick WJ, Green SL, et al. 1993. Diagnosis and prediction of cervical vertebral malformation in Thoroughbred foals based on semiquantitative radiographic indicators. Equine Vet J 25:435. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Tomizawa N, Nishimura R, Sasaki N, et al. 1994. Efficacy of the new radiographic measurement method for cervical vertebral instability in wobbling foals. J Vet Med Sci 56:1119. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Tomizawa N, Nishimura R, Sasaki N, et al. 1994. Morphological analysis of cervical vertebrae in ataxic foals. J Vet Med Sci 56:1081. PUBMED Abstract
  19. van Biervliet J, Mayhew IG, de Lahunta A. 2006. Cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy: diagnosis. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:54.
  20. Van Biervliet J, Scrivani PV, Divers TJ, et al. 2004. Evaluation of decision criteria for detection of spinal cord compression based on cervical myelography in horses: 38 cases (1981-2001). Equine Vet J 36:14. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Moore BR, Holbrook TC, Stefanacci JD, et al. 1992. Contrast-enhanced computed-tomography and myelography in 6 horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet J 24:197. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Mitchell CW, Nykamp SG, Foster R, et al. 2012. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating horses with spinal ataxia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 53:613. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Prange T, Derksen FJ, Stick JA, et al. 2011. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in the horse: Intra- and post operative observations. Equine Vet J 43:404. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Prange T, Carr EA, Stick JA, et al. 2012. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet J 44:116.
  25. Nollet H, Deprez R, Van Ham L, et al. 2004. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: normal values of magnetic motor evoked potentials in 84 normal horses and influence of height, weight, age and sex. Equine Vet J 36:51. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Nollet H, Van Ham L, Dewulf J, et al. 2003. Standardization of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the horse. Vet J 166:244. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Nollet H, Van Ham L, Verschooten F, et al. 2003. Use of magnetic motor-evoked potentials in horses with bilateral hind limb ataxia. Am J Vet Res 64:1382. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Berg LC, Nielsen JV, Thoefner MB, et al. 2003. Ultrasonography of the equine cervical region: a descriptive study in eight horses. Equine Vet J 35:647. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Birmingham SSW, Reed SM, Mattoon JS, et al. 2010. Qualitative assessment of corticosteroid cervical articular facet injection in symptomatic horses. Equine Vet Educ 22:77.
  30. Hoffman CJ, Clark CK. 2011. Prognosis for racing with conservative management of cervical vertebral malformation in Thoroughbreds: 19 cases (2002-2010). J Vet Intern Med 25:663, Abstract E-611. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Donawick WJ, Mayhew IG, Galligan DT, et al. 1989. Early diagnosis of cervical vertebral malformation in young Thoroughbred horses and successful treatment with restricted, paced, diet and confinement, pp 525-528. Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners Convention, Dec 3-6, Boston, MA.
  32. Walmsley J, Grant BD. 2012. Surgical treatment of developmental diseases of the spinal column, pp 700-711. In Auer JA, Stick JA (eds), Equine surgery, ed 4. Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  33. Moore BR, Reed SM, Robertson JT. 1993. Surgical treatment of cervical stenotic myelopathy in horses: 73 cases (1983-1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:108. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Nout YS, Reed SM. 2003. Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet Educ 15:212.
  35. Nixon AJ. 1991. Surgical management of equine cervical vertebral malformation. Prog Vet Neurol 2:183.
  36. Walmsley JR. 2005. Surgical treatment of cervical spinal cord compression in horses: a European experience. Equine Vet Educ 17:39.
  37. Grant BD, Huggons N, Bagby G, et al. 2007. Review of surgical treatment of triple-level cervical cord compression (12 cases). AAEP Proc 53:60.
  38. Nixon AJ, Stashak TS. 1983. Dorsal laminectomy in the horse. 1. Review of the literature and description of a new procedure. Vet Surg 12:172.

Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy

  1. Mayhew IG, deLahunta A, Whitlock RH, et al. 1977. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 170:195. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Beech J. 1984. Neuroaxonal dystrophy of the accessory cuneate nucleus in horses. Vet Pathol 21:384. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Miller MM, Collatos C. 1997. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:43. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Finno CJ, Higgins RJ, Aleman M, et al. 2011. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Lusitano Horses. J Vet Intern Med 25:1439. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Dill SG, Correa MT, Erb HN, et al. 1990. Factors associated with the development of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy. Am J Vet Res 51:1300. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Beech J, Haskins M. 1987. Genetic studies of neuraxonal dystrophy in the Morgan. Am J Vet Res 48:109. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Blythe LL, Hultgren BD, Craig AM, et al. 1991. Clinical, viral, and genetic evaluation of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in a family of Appaloosas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:1005. PUBMED Abstract
  8. MacKay RJ. 2008. Neurodegenerative disorders, p 235. In Furr M, Reed S (eds), Equine neurology, ed 1. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  9. Aleman M, Finno CJ, Higgins RJ, et al. 2011. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 239:823. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Mayhew IG, Brown CM, Stowe HD, et al. 1987. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy: a vitamin E deficiency that may be familial. J Vet Intern Med 1:45. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Gandini G, Fatzer R, Mariscoli M, et al. 2004. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in five Quarter Horses: clinical and neuropathological findings. Equine Vet J 36:83. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Finno CJ, Valberg SJ. 2012. A comparative review of vitamin E and associated equine disorders. J Vet Intern Med 26:1251. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Blythe LL, Craig AM, Lassen ED, et al. 1991. Serially determined plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and results of the oral vitamin E absorption test in clinically normal horses and in horses with degenerative myeloencephalopathy. Am J Vet Res 52:908. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Finno CJ, Aleman M, Ofri R, et al. 2012. Electrophysiological studies in American Quarter horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy. Vet Ophthalmol 15:3. PUBMED Abstract

Spinal Cord Trauma

  1. Holdsworth FW. 1963. Fractures, dislocations, and fracture-dislocations of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Br 45:6.
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  3. Leblond A, Villard I, Leblond L, et al. 2000. A retrospective evaluation of the causes of death of 448 insured French horses in 1995. Vet Res Commun 24:85. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Jansson N. 2001. What is your diagnosis? Radiographic diagnosis—multiple cervical inter vertebral disk prolapses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:1681. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Walling BE, Stewart MC, Valli VE. 2011. Pathology in practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 239:199. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Landolfi JA, Saunders GK, Swecker WS. 2004. Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a calf. J Vet Diagn Invest 16:360. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Boden LA, Anderson GA, Charles JA, et al. 2006. Risk of fatality and causes of death of Thoroughbred horses associated with racing in Victoria, Australia: 1989-2004. Equine Vet J 38:312. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Vaughan LC, Mason BJE. 1976. A clinico-pathological study of racing accidents in horses. A report of a study on equine fatal accidents on racecourses. Horserace Betting Levy Board, London.
  9. Tyler CM, Davis RE, Begg AP, et al. 1993. A survey of neurological diseases in horses. Aust Vet J 70:445. PUBMED Abstract
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  11. Mayhew IG. 2009. Cervical vertebral fractures. Equine Vet Educ 21:536.
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  13. Julian RJ, Maxwell TW. 1963. Fracture of the cervical vertebrae in a heifer. Can Vet J 4:29. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Edwards JF, Wikse SE, Loy JK, et al. 1995. Vertebral fracture associated with trauma during movement and restraint of cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:934. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Altmaier KR, Sherman DM, Schelling SH, et al. 1994. Osteomyelitis and disseminated infection caused by Corynebacterium renale in a goat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:934. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Schuh JC, Killeen JR. 1988. A retrospective study of dystocia-related vertebral fractures in neonatal calves. Can Vet J:830. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Agerholm JS, Basse A, Arnbjerg J. 1993. Vertebral fractures in newborn calves. Acta Vet Scand 34:379. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Muno J, Samii V, Gallatin L, et al. 2009. Cervical vertebral fracture in a Thoroughbred filly with minimal neurological dysfunction. Equine Vet Educ 21:527.
  19. Schuijt G. 1990. Iatrogenic fractures of ribs and vertebrae during delivery in perinatally dying calves: 235 cases (1978-1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:1196. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Fecteau ME, Sweeney RW. 2008. Muscular tone and gait anomalies, pp 283-298. In Anderson DE, Rings M (eds), Current veterinary therapy: food animal practice, ed 5. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  21. Thomson RG. 1969. Vertebral body osteophytes in bulls. Pathol Vet (Suppl 6):1-46. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Park EH, White GA, Tieber LM. 2012. Mechanisms of injury and emergency care of acute spinal cord injury in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 22:160. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Gygax D, Furst A, Picek S, et al. 2011. Internal fixation of a fractured axis in an adult horse. Vet Surg 40:636. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Smith PM, Jeffery ND. 2005. Spinal shock-comparative aspects and clinical relevance. J Vet Intern Med 19:788. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Chiapetta JR, Baker JC, Feeney DA. 1985. Vertebral fracture, extensor hypertonia of thoracic limbs, and paralysis of pelvic limbs (Schiff-Sherrington syndrome) in an Arabian foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:387. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Bergman R, Lanz O, Shell L. 2000. A review of experimental and clinical treatments for acute spinal cord injury. Vet Med 95:855.
  27. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. 1992. Methylprednisolone or naloxone treatment after acute spinal-cord injury 1-year follow-up data—results of the 2nd National Acute Spinal Cord Injury study. J Neurosurg 76:23. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. 1990. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury—results of the 2nd National Acute Spinal Cord Injury study. N Engl J Med 322:1405. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Zhang SH, Wadhwa R, Haydel J, et al. 2013. Spine and spinal cord trauma: diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 31:183. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Ruedi M, Hagen R, Luchinger U, et al. 2011. Subluxation of C2 and C3 and fracture of C2 caused by severe head trauma in two warmblood horses. Pferdeheilkunde 27:522.
  31. Nixon AJ, Stashak TS. 1988. Laminectomy for relief of atlanto-axial subluxation in 4 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:677. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Owen R, Ap R, Smithmaxie LL. 1978. Repair of fractured dens of axis in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:854. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Reardon RJM, Bailey R, Walmsley JP, et al. 2010. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of a locking compression plate fixation and kerf cut cylinder fixation for ventral arthrodesis of the fourth and the fifth equine cervical vertebrae. Vet Surg 39:980.
  34. Reardon R, Kummer M, Lischer C. 2009. Ventral locking compression plate for treatment of cervical stenotic myelopathy in a 3-month-old warmblood foal. Vet Surg 38:537. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Lanz O, Bergman R, Shell L. 2000. Managing spinal fractures and luxations in dogs. Vet Med 95:868.
  36. Collatos C, Allen D, Chambers J, et al. 1991. Surgical-treatment of sacral fracture in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:877. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Schmid TC, Kummer MR, Hagen RU, et al. 2011. Locking compression plate osteosynthesis of sacral fractures in three heifers. Vet Surg 40:374. PUBMED Abstract

Ankylosing Spondylitis of Holstein Bulls

  1. Monke DR, Parker WG, Hillman R. Progressive posterior paralysis. Ninth Technical Conference on Artificial Insemination and Reproduction 1982, National Association of Artificial Insemination Breeders.
  2. Park CA, Hines HC, Monke DR, et al. 1993. Association between the bovine major histocompatibility complex and chronic posterior spinal paresis—a form of ankylosing-spondylitis in Holstein bulls. Anim Genet 24:53. PUBMED Abstract

Spinal Tumors

  1. Hirsch JE, Grant BD, Linovitz R, et al. 2009. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of epidural neoplasms in two ataxic horses. Equine Vet Educ 21:564.
  2. Ueno T, Wada S, Mashita S, et al. 2012. Pathological findings in a case of equine T-cell lymphoma associated with ataxia. J Equine Vet Sci 32:315.
  3. Stabile F, Bernardini M, Rigotti CF, et al. 2009. Spinal melanoma in a pony: a case report. Ippologia 20:19.
  4. Drew RA, Greatorex JC. 1974. Vertebral plasma cell myeloma causing posterior paralysis in a horse. Equine Vet J 6:131. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Allen AL, Goupil BA, Valentine BA. 2012. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Can Vet J 53:639. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Braun U, Tschuor AC, Sydler T. 2011. Posterior paresis due to a malignant lymphoma in a goat. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 153:123. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Matsuda K, Nomoto H, Kawamura Y, et al. 2010. Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a Japanese Black cow. Vet Pathol 47:339. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Steinberg H, Peek SF, Nelson KM. 2006. Neuroblastoma with neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord in an Aberdeen Angus heifer calf. Vet Pathol 43:193. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Berrocal A, Montgomery DL, Mackie JT, et al. 2005. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the spinal cord of a Brahman crossbred calf. Vet Pathol 42:834. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Baker JR. 1975. Case of an invasive melanoma in a newborn lamb. Vet Rec 97:496. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Roth L, Scarratt WK, Shipley CF, et al. 1987. Ganglioglioma of the spinal cord in a calf. Vet Pathol 24:188. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Masterson MA, Hull BL, Vollmer LA. 1988. Treatment of bovine lymphosarcoma with l-asparaginase. J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:1301. PUBMED Abstract

Verminous Meningoencephalomyelitis

  1. Little PB. 1972. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis of equidae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 160:1407. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Little PB, Lwin US, Fretz P. 1974. Verminous encephalitis of horses—experimental induction with Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Am J Vet Res 35:1501. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Mayhew IG, Brewer BD, Reinhard MK, et al. 1984. Verminous (Strongylus vulgaris) myelitis in a donkey. Cornell Vet 74:30. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Swanstro O, Rising JL, Carlton WW. 1969. Spinal nematodosis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:748. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Nielsen MK, Vidyashankar AN, Olsen SN, et al. 2012. Strongylus vulgaris associated with usage of selective therapy on Danish horse farms—is it reemerging? Vet Parasitol 189:260. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Olander HJ. 1967. Migration of Hypoderma lineatum in brain of a horse—a case report and review. Pathol Vet 4:477. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Hadlow WJ, Ward JK, Krinsky WL. 1977. Intracranial myiasis by Hypoderma bovis (Linnaeus) in a horse. Cornell Vet 67:272. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Hendrikx WML, Jansen J, Devries TJ. 1989. A Hypoderma diana (Diptera, Hypodermatidae) infection in a horse. Vet Q 11:56. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Nadler SA, Carreno RA, Adams BJ, et al. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of soil and clinical isolates of Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda:Cephalobina:Panagrolaimoidea), an opportunistic pathogen of horses. Int J Parasitol 33:1115. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Fonderie P, Bert W, Hendrickx F, et al. 2012. Anthelmintic tolerance in free-living and facultative parasitic isolates of Halicephalobus (Panagrolaimidae). Parasitology 139:1301. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Di Francesco G, Savini G, Maggi A, et al. 2012. Equine meningo-encephalitis caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis: a case report observed during West Nile disease surveillance activities. Vet Ital 48:437. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Eydal M, Bambir SH, Sigurdarson S, et al. 2012. Fatal infection in two Icelandic stallions caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Vet Parasitol 186:523. PUBMED Abstract
  13. de Sant'Ana FJF, Ferreira Junior JA, da Costa YL, et al. 2012. Granulomatous meningoencephalitis due to Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse. Braz J Vet Pathol 5:12.
  14. Hermosilla C, Coumbe KM, Habershon-Butcher J, et al. 2011. Fatal equine meningoencephalitis in the United Kingdom caused by the panagrolaimid nematode Halicephalobus gingivalis: case report and review of the literature. Equine Vet J 43:759. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Ondrejka SL, Procop GW, Lai KK, et al. 2010. Fatal parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus deletrix: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:625. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Akagami M, Shibahara T, Yoshiga T, et al. 2007. Granulomatous nephritis and meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a pony gelding. J Vet Med Sci 69:1187. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Deniau V, Courouce-Malblanc A, Tuauden S, et al. 2012. Facial deformation and maxillary osteolysis in a mare. Pract Vet Equine 44:1.
  18. Ferguson R, van Dreumel T, Keystone JS, et al. 2008. Unsuccessful treatment of a horse with mandibular granulomatous osteomyelitis due to Halicephalobus gingivalis. Can Vet J 49:1099. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Muller S, Grzybowski M, Sager H, et al. 2008. A nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus sp. in a horse. Vet Dermatol 19:44. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Pearce SG, Boure LP, Taylor JA, et al. 2001. Treatment of a granuloma caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:1735. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Dunn DG, Gardiner CH, Dralle KR, et al. 1993. Nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus (syn Micronema) sp. in a horse. Vet Pathol 30:206. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Aleksandersen M, Gjerde B, Sorby R, et al. 2000. Fatal infection with Halicephalobus gingivalis (syn. plcnst. deletrix) in four horses in Norway. Nord Vet Med 112:7.
  23. Johnson KH, Johnson DW. 1966. Granulomas associated with Micronema deletrix in maxillae of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 149:155. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Wilkins PA, Wacholder S, Nolan TJ, et al. 2001. Evidence for transmission of Halicephalobus deletrix (H. gingivalis) from dam to foal. J Vet Intern Med 15:412. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Sponseller BT, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. 2011. Pathology in practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238:1265. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Alstad AD, Berg IE, Samuel C. 1979. Disseminated Micronema deletrix infection in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:264. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Boswinkel M, Neyens IJS, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. 2006. Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in a 5-year old Tinker gelding. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 131:74. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Johnson JS, Hibler CP, Tillotson KM, et al. 2001. Radiculomeningomyelitis due to Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse. Vet Pathol 38:559. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Reiser S, Schwarz B, Gruber A, et al. 2011. Halicephalobus gingivalis–associated meningoencephalitis in a Shetland pony gelding. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 98:114.
  30. Bryant UK, Lyons ET, Bain FT, et al. 2006. Halicephalobus gingivalis–associated meningoencephalitis in a Thoroughbred foal. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:612. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Takai H, Shibahara T, Murakami T, et al. 2005. Repeat occurrence of equine Halicephalobus infection at an equestrian club. J Jpn Vet Med Assoc 58:105.
  32. Darien BJ, Belknap J, Nietfeld J. 1988. Cerebrospinal-fluid changes in 2 horses with central nervous-system nematodiasis (Micronema deletrix). J Vet Intern Med 2:201. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Buergelt CD. 1991. Halicephalobus (Micronema) deletrix infection in the horse. Equine Pract 13:7.
  34. Wlaschitz S, Frohlich W, Riedelberger K, et al. 2000. First reported case of intra vitam diagnosed Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in a Lipizzaner stallion in Austria. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 87:296.
  35. Grosche A, Aupperle H, Schmaschke R. 2002. Multiple organ inflammation in a pony gelding caused by Halicephalobus deletrix infection. Praktische Tierarzt 83:338.
  36. Kinde H, Mathews M, Ash L, et al. 2000. Halicephalobus gingivalis (H. deletrix) infection in two horses in southern California. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:162. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Sturgeon BPR, Bassett H. 2000. Polydipsia in a foal with renal helminthiasis. Vet Rec 147:23. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Wollanke B, Gerhards H, Schaffer EH. 2000. Keratouveitis and macrohaematuria in a horse with Micronema deletrix infection. Pferdeheilkunde 16:23.
  39. Rames DS, Miller DK, Barthel R, et al. 1995. Ocular Halicephalobus (syn Micronema) deletrix in a horse. Vet Pathol 32:540. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Keg PR, Mirck MH, Dik KJ, et al. 1984. Micronema deletrix infection in a Shetland pony stallion. Equine Vet J 16:471. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Ruggles AJ, Beech J, Gillette DM, et al. 1993. Disseminated Halicephalobus deletrix infection in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:550. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Trostle SS, Wilson DG, Steinberg H, et al. 1993. Antemortem diagnosis and attempted treatment of (Halicephalobus) Micronema deletrix infection in a horse. Can Vet J 34:117. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Comer JA, Davidson WR, Prestwood AK, et al. 1991. An update on the distribution of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in the southeastern United States. J Wildl Dis 27:348. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Tanabe M, Gerhold RW, Beckstead RB, et al. 2010. Molecular confirmation of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in a horse with verminous encephalitis. Vet Pathol 47:759. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Van Biervliet J, De Lahunta A, Ennulat D, et al. 2004. Acquired cervical scoliosis in six horses associated with dorsal grey column chronic myelitis. Equine Vet J 36:86. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Tanabe M, Kelly R, de Lahunta A, et al. 2007. Verminous encephalitis in a horse produced by nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Vet Pathol 44:119. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Reinstein SL, Lucio-Forster A, Bowman DD, et al. 2010. Surgical extraction of an intraocular infection of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:196. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Wang QP, Wu ZD, Wei J, et al. 2012. Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an update. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:389. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Kim DY, Stewart TB, Bauer RW, et al. 2002. Parastrongylus (Angiostrongylus) cantonensis now endemic in Louisiana wildlife. J Parasitol 88:1024. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Costa LRR, McClure JJ, Snider TG, et al. 2000. Verminous meningoencephalomyelitis by Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensis in an American Miniature Horse. Equine Vet Educ 12:2.
  51. Wright JD, Kelly WR, Wadell AH, et al. 1991. Equine neural angiostrongylosis. Aust Vet J 68:58. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Mayhew IG, Lichtenfels JR, Greiner EC, et al. 1982. Migration of a spiruroid nematode through the brain of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:1306. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Soulsby EJL. 1968. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, p 307. Balliere, Tindall and Cassell, London.
  54. Becklund WW, Walker ML. 1969. Taxonomy hosts and geographic distribution of Setaria (Nematoda—Filarioidea) in United States and Canada. J Parasitol 55:359. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Bazargani T, Eslami A, Gholami GR, et al. 2008. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis of cattle, sheep and goats in Iran. Iranian J Parasitol 3:16.
  56. Nakano H, Tozuka M, Ikadai H, et al. 2007. Morphological survey of bovine Setaria in the abdominal cavities of cattle in Aomori and Kumamoto prefectures, Japan. J Vet Med Sci 69:413. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Innes JRM, Pillai CP. 1955. Kumri—so-called lumbar paralysis—of horses in Ceylon (India and Burma), and its identification with cerebrospinal nematodiasis. Br Vet J 3:223.
  58. Tung KC, Lai CH, Ooi HK, et al. 2003. Cerebrospinal setariosis with Setaria marshalli and Setaria digitata infection in cattle. J Vet Med Sci 65:977. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Mahmoud OM, Haroun EM, Omer OH. 2004. An outbreak of neurofilariosis in young goats. Vet Parasitol 120:151. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Mahmoud OM, Sulman A, Haroun EM, et al. 1994. Ivermectin treatment in an outbreak of cerebrospinal microfilariosis in goats in Saudi Arabia. Trop Anim Health Prod 26:177. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Frauenfelder HC, Kazacos KR, Lichtenfels JR. 1980. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis caused by a filariid in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 177:359. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Yoshihara T, Oikawa M, Kanemaru T, et al. 1987. Two cases of cerebrospinal setariosis in the racehorses. Bull Equine Res Inst 24:14.
  63. Shoho C. 1954. Prophylaxis and therapy in epizootic cerebrospinal nematodiasis of animals by l-diethylcarbamyl-4-methyl-piperazine dihydrogen citrate—report of a second field trial. Vet Med 49:459.

Postanesthetic Myelopathy and Encephalopathy

  1. Yovich JV, Lecouteur RA, Stashak TS, et al. 1986. Postanesthetic hemorrhagic myelopathy in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:300. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Hattel AL, McAllister ES. 2011. Pathology in practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238:867. PUBMED Abstract
  3. van Loon J, Meertens NM, van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MMS, et al. 2010. Post-anaesthetic myelopathy in a 3-year-old friesian gelding. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 135:272. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Gold JR, Divers TJ, de Lahunta A. 2005. Postanesthetic poliomyelopathy in a 7-day-old calf. J Vet Intern Med 19:775. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Joubert KE, Duncan N, Murray SE. 2005. Post-anaesthetic myelomalacia in a horse. J S Afr Vet Assoc 76:36. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Raidal SR, Raidal SL, Richards RB, et al. 1997. Acute paraplegia in a Thoroughbred race-horse after general anaesthesia. Aust Vet J 75:178. PUBMED Abstract
  7. McKay JS, Forest TW, Senior M, et al. 2002. Postanaesthetic cerebral necrosis in five horses. Vet Rec 150:70. PUBMED Abstract

Occipitoatlantoaxial Malformation

  1. Mayhew IG, Watson AG, Heissan JA. 1978. Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformations in horse. Equine Vet J 10:103. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Seva JI, Gomez S, Pallares FJ, et al. 2008. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in an adult goat. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:654. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Schmidt SP, Forsythe WB, Cowgill HM, et al. 1993. A case of congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) in a lamb. J Vet Diagn Invest 5:458. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Watson AG, Wilson JH, Cooley AJ, et al. 1985. Occipito-atlanto-axial malformation with atlanto-axial subluxation in an ataxic calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:740. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Engelken TJ, Leipold HW, Spire MF, et al. 1992. Atlanto-occipital fusion in two polled Hereford calves. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 39:236. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Gonda C, Crisman M, Moon M. 2001. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in a Quarter Horse foal. Equine Vet Educ 13:289.
  7. Rosenstein DS, Schott HC, Stickle RL. 2000. Imaging diagnosis—occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in a Miniature Horse foal. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41:218. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Delahunta A, Hatfield C, Dietz A. 1989. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation with duplication of the atlas and axis in a half Arabian foal. Cornell Vet 79:185. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Watson AG, Mayhew IG. 1986. Familial congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (QAAM) in the Arabian horse. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 11:334. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Wilson WD, Hughes SJ, Ghoshal NG, et al. 1985. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in 2 non-Arabian horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:36. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Mayhew IG. 1978. Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformations in horse. 1. Clinical presentation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:869.
  12. Watson AG. 1978. Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in horse. 2. Radiologic confirmation, morphologic considerations, and pedigree analysis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:869.
  13. Blikslager AT, Wilson DA, Constantinescu GM, et al. 1991. Atlantoaxial malformation in a half-Arabian colt. Cornell Vet 81:67. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Witte S, Alexander K, Bucellato M, et al. 2005. Congenital atlantoaxial luxation associated with malformation of the dens axis in a Quarter Horse foal. Equine Vet Educ 17:175.
  15. Watson AG, Quick CB, Delahunta A. 1978. Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAMM) with 2 atlases in a young Arabian horse. Zentralbl Veterinarmed C 7:354.
  16. Leipold HW, Brandt GW, Guffy M, et al. 1974. Congenital atlanto-occipital fusion in a foal. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 69:1312. PUBMED Abstract
  17. White ME, Pennock PW, Seiler RJ. 1978. Atlanto-axial subluxation in 5 young cattle. Can Vet J 19:79. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Owen RAR, Smithmaxie LL. 1978. Repair of fractured dens of axis in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:854. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Nixon AJ, Stashak TS. 1988. Laminectomy for relief of atlanto-axial subluxation in 4 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:677. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Licka T. 2002. Closed reduction of an atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocation in a foal. Vet Rec 151:356. PUBMED Abstract

Myelodysplasias (Syringomyelia; Spinal Dysraphism; Hydromyelia)

  1. Cho DY, Leipold HW. 1977. Spina bifida and spinal dysraphism in calves. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 24:680. PUBMED Abstract
  2. McFarland LZ. 1959. Spina bifida with myelomeningocele in a calf. J Am Vet Med Assoc 134:32. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Leipold HW, Cates WF, Radostits OM, et al. 1969. Spinal dysraphism, arthrogryposis and cleft palate in newborn Charolais calves. Can Vet J 10:268. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Gruys E. 1973. Dicephalus, spina bifida, Arnold-Chiari malformation and duplication of thoracic organs in a calf. Description of the case and critical discussion of the pathogenesis of the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 20:789. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Lempe A, Heine M, Bosch B, et al. 2012. Imaging diagnosis and clinical presentation of a Chiari malformation in a Thoroughbred foal. Equine Vet Educ 24:618.
  6. Testoni S, Pria AD, Gallo D, et al. 2010. Spina bifida in calves: description of seven cases. Large Anim Rev 16:63.
  7. Greene HJ, Leipold HW, Huston K, et al. 1973. Bovine congenital defects: arthrogryposis and associated defects in calves. Am J Vet Res 34:887. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Dodge CE. 1975. Spina bifida. Can Vet J 16:22. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Potter KA, Weston JF, Munday JS, et al. 2010. Spina bifida with associated malformations of the central nervous system in Dorper-cross sheep. N Z Vet J 58:315. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Rokos J, Cekanova E, Kithierova E. 1976. Pathogenesis of trypan-blue induced spina bifida. J Pathol 118:25. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Rokos J. 1975. Pathogenesis of diastematomyelia and spina bifida. J Pathol 117:155. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Keeler RF. 1976. Lupin alkaloids from teratogenic and nonteratogenic lupins. III. Identification of anagyrine as the probable teratogen by feeding trials. J Toxicol Environ Health 1:887. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Whittem JH. 1957. Congenital abnormalities in calves: arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. J Pathol Bacteriol 73:375.
  14. Hill BD. 2010. Myelodysplasia as a cause of hindlimb ataxia in two beef calves. Aust Vet J 88:151. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Singh UM, Little PB. 1972. Arthrogryposis and cleft palate in a Charolais calf. Can Vet J 13:21. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Doige CE. 1996. Congenital cleft vertebral centrum and intra- and extraspinal cyst in a foal. Vet Pathol 33:87. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Cho DY, Leipold HW. 1977. Syringomyelia in a thoroughbred foal. Equine Vet J 9:195. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Jacobsen B, Venner M, Gerdwilker A, et al. 2007. Ventral meningomyelocele in a German warmblood foal. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 114:470. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Polledo L, Marin JFG, Martinez-Fernandez B, et al. 2012. Recurrent outbreaks of myelodysplasia in newborn calves. J Comp Pathol 147:479. PUBMED Abstract

Acquired Torticollis

  1. McKelvey WA, Owen RR. 1979. Acquired torticollis in eleven horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 175:295. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Keeler RF. 1976. Lupin alkaloids from teratogenic and nonteratogenic lupins. III. Identification of anagyrine as the probable teratogen by feeding trials. J Toxicol Environ Health 1:887. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Gruys E. 1973. Dicephalus, spina bifida, Arnold-Chiari malformation and duplication of thoracic organs in a calf. Description of the case and critical discussion of the pathogenesis of the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 20:789. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Leipold HW, Husby F, Brundage AL, et al. 1977. Congenital defects of calves on Kodiak island. J Am Vet Med Assoc 170:1408. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Whittem JH. 1957. Congenital abnormalities in calves: arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. J Pathol Bacteriol 73:375.
  6. Van Biervliet J, De Lahunta A, Ennulat D, et al. 2004. Acquired cervical scoliosis in six horses associated with dorsal grey column chronic myelitis. Equine Vet J 36:86. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Vandeplassche M, Simoens P, Bouters R, et al. 1984. Aetiology and pathogenesis of congenital torticollis and head scoliosis in the equine foetus. Equine Vet J 16:419. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Conraths FJ, Beer M, Peters M. 2012. “Schmallenberg-virus”: a novel infectious disease in ruminants. Tieraerztliche Umschau 67:147.
  9. Smith RG. 1941. Operation for torticollis (congenital wry neck). Vet Rec 53:189.


  1. Cato E, George WL, Finegold SM. 1986. Genus Clostridium praemoszski 1880, pp 1141-1200. In Smeath PHA, Mair NS, Sharpe ME (eds), Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
  2. Wilkins CA, Richter MB, Hobbs WB, et al. 1988. Occurrence of Clostridium tetani in soil and horses. S Afr Med J 73:718. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Cook TM, Protheroe RT, Handel JM. 2001. Tetanus: a review of the literature. Br J Anaesth 87:477. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Almeida ACS, Ribeiro MG, Paes AC, et al. 2012. Tetanus in small ruminants: retrospective study of major clinical and epidemiological findings in 11 cases. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 64:1060.
  5. Aslani MR, Bazargani TT, Ashkar AA, et al. 1998. Outbreak of tetanus in lambs. Vet Rec 142:518. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Char NL, Rajeswarl KR, Reddy BVR. 1993. An outbreak of tetanus in sheep. Indian Vet J 70:297.
  7. Drienmeier D, Schild AL, Fernandes JCT, et al. 2007. Outbreaks of tetanus in beef cattle and sheep in Brazil associated with disophenol injection. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 54:333. PUBMED Abstract
  8. O'Connor B, Leavitt S, Parker K. 1993. Tetanus in feeder calves associated with elastic castration. Can Vet J 34:311. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Green SL, Little CB, Baird JD, et al. 1994. Tetanus in the horse: a review of 20 cases (1970 to 1990). J Vet Intern Med 8:128. PUBMED Abstract
  10. van Galen G, Delguste C, Sandersen C, et al. 2008. Tetanus in the equine species: a retrospective study of 31 cases. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:512. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Kay G, Knottenbelt DC. 2007. Tetanus in equids: a report of 56 cases. Equine Vet Educ 19:107.
  12. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, et al. 2007. Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses, ed 10. Saunders/Elsevier, New York, NY.
  13. Goudswaard J, Joling KF, van der Schaaf A, et al. 1969. Idiopathic tetanus in a herd of yearling cattle. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 94:1113.
  14. Turton K, Chaddock JA, Acharya KR. 2002. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: Structure, function and therapeutic utility. Trends Biochem Sci 27:552. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Erdmann G, Wiegand H, Wellhöner HH. 1975. Intraaxonal and extraaxonal transport of 125I-tetanus toxin in early local tetanus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 290:357. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Domenighetti GM, Savary G, Stricker H. 1984. Hyperadrenergic syndrome in severe tetanus: extreme rise in catecholamines responsive to labetalol. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 288:1483. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Trujillo MH, Castillo A, España J, et al. 1987. Impact of intensive care management on the prognosis of tetanus. Analysis of 641 cases. Chest 92:63. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Sanford JP. 1995. Tetanus—forgotten but not gone. N Engl J Med 332:812. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Brook I. 2008. Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 6:327. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Akbulut D, Grant KA, McLauchlin J. 2005. Improvement in laboratory diagnosis of wound botulism and tetanus among injecting illicit-drug users by use of real-time PCR assays for neurotoxin gene fragments. J Clin Microbiol 43:4342. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Turillazzi E, Neri M, Pomara C, et al. 2009. An immunohistochemical study on a tetanus fatal case using toxin fragment C (TTC). Should it be a useful diagnostic tool? Neuropathology 29:68. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Brook D. 1970. Tetanus in horses. Vet Rec 87:700. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Dolar D. 1992. The use of continuous atropine infusion in the management of severe tetanus. Intensive Care Med 18:26. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Smith MO, George LW. 2009. Tetanus (lockjaw), pp 1089-1091. In Smith BP (ed), Large animal internal medicine, ed 4. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  25. MacKay RJ. 2008. Tetanus, pp 376-380. In Sellon D, Long M (eds), Equine infectious diseases, ed 1. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  26. Farrar JJ, Yen LM, Cook T, et al. 2000. Tetanus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69:292. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Owen LN, Leam G, Nestel BL. 1959. The treatment of tetanus with particular reference to chlorpromazine. Vet Rec 71:61.
  28. Mykkanen AK, Hyytiainen HK, McGowan CM. 2011. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery. Aust Vet J 89:447. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Tidyman M, Prichard JG, Deamer RL, et al. 1985. Adjunctive use of dantrolene in severe tetanus. Anesth Analg 64:538. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Thwaites CL, Yen LM, Loan HT, et al. 2006. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of severe tetanus: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 368:1436. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Attygalle D, Rodrigo N. 2004. New trends in the management of tetanus. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 2:73. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Clarke G, Hill RG. 1972. Effects of a focal penicillin lesion on responses of rabbit cortical neurones to putative neurotransmitters. Br J Pharmacol 44:435. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Muylle E, Oyaert W, Ooms L, et al. 1975. Treatment of tetanus in horse by injections of tetanus antitoxin into subarachnoid space. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:47. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Kabura L, Ilibagiza D, Menten J, et al. 2006. Intrathecal vs. intramuscular administration of human antitetanus immunoglobulin or equine tetanus antitoxin in the treatment of tetanus: a meta-analysis. Trop Med Int Health 11:1075. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Guglick MA, Macallister CG, Ely RW, et al. 1995. Hepatic-disease associated with administration of tetanus antitoxin in 8 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:1737. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Hjerpe CA. 1964. Serum hepatitis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 144:734. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Rebhun WC. 1995. Diseases of dairy cattle, pp 436-439. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
  38. 2012. Core vaccination guidelines—tetanus. [WWW page]."/-i-165.html/", accessed Feb 20, 2014.
  39. Wilson WD, Mihaly JE, Hussey S, et al. 2001. Passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin isotype antibodies against tetanus and influenza and their effect on the response of foals to vaccination. Equine Vet J 33:644. PUBMED Abstract
  40. East N, Rowe JD. 2009. Ovine and caprine vaccination programs, pp 1587-1591. In Smith BP (ed), Large animal internal medicine, ed 4. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, MO.

Spinal Abscesses

  1. Dodd DC, Cordes DO. 1964. Spinal abscess and cord compression syndrome in lambs. N Z Vet J 12:1. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Divers TJ. 2004. Acquired spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim 20:231. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Snider III TG, Luther DG, Jenny BF, et al. 1996. Encephalitis, lymphoid tissue depletion and secondary diseases associated with bovine immunodeficiency virus in a dairy herd. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 19:117. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Finley GG. 1975. A survey of vertebral abscesses in domestic animals in Ontario. Can Vet J 16:114. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Sherman DM, Ames TR. 1986. Vertebral body abscesses in cattle: a review of five cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:608. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Chladek DW, Ruth GR. 1976. Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii from an epidural abscess in a horse with progressive paralysis. J Am Vet Met Assoc 168:64. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Adams SB, Steckel R, Blevins W. 1985. Diskospondylitis in five horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:270. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Richardson DW. 1986. Eikenella corrodens osteomyelitis of the axis in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 188:298. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Olchowy TW. 1994. Vertebral body osteomyelitis due to Rhodococcus equi in two Arabian foals. Equine Vet J 26:79. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Chaffin MK, Honnas CM, Crabill MR, et al. 1995. Cauda equina syndrome, diskospondylitis, and a paravertebral abscess caused by Rhodococcus equi in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:215. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Dixon PM, Rowlands AC. 1981. Atlantooccipital joint infection associated with guttural pouch mycosis in a horse. Equine Vet J 13:260. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Walmsley JP. 1988. A case of atlantooccipital arthropathy following guttural pouch mycosis in a horse: the use of radioisotope bone scanning as an aid to diagnosis. Equine Vet J. 20:219. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Walker DF. 1984. Causes of copulatory failure in beef bulls. Mod Vet Pract 65:252. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Scott PR. 1992. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from field cases of some common ovine neurological diseases. Br Vet J 148:15. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Braun U, Schweizer G, Gerspach C, et al. 2003. Clinical findings in 11 cattle with abscesses in the thoracic vertebrae. Vet Rec 152:782. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Tyson R, Graham JP, Roberts GD, et al. 2004. What is your diagnosis? Osteomyelitis of a vertebral body. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:515. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Markel MD, Madigan JE, Lichtensteiger CA, et al. 1986. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:632. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Scott PR, Will RG. 1991. A report of Froin's syndrome in five ovine thoracolumbar epidural abscess cases. Br Vet J 147:582. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Collins JD, Kelly WR, Twomey T. 1971. Brucella-associated vertebral osteomyelitis in a Thoroughbred mare. Vet Rec. 88:321. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Kelly WR, Collins JD, Farrelly BT. 1972. Vertebral osteomyelitis in a horse associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis) infection. Am J Vet Rad Soc 13:59.
  21. Evans LH, Dodd D, Walton FN. 1968. Clinicopathologic conference. J Am Vet Med Assoc 153:1085. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Baxter GM, Humphries Jr GB. 1991. Percutaneous drainage of an abscess in the lateral neck region of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:660. PUBMED Abstract

Triaryl Phosphate Poisoning (Chronic Organophosphate Poisoning; Dying-Back Axonopathy)

  1. Williams JF, Dade AW. 1976. Posterior paralysis associated with anthelminthic treatment of sheep. J Am Vet Med Assoc 169:1307. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Seung UK, Rizzuto N. 1975. Neuroaxonal degeneration induced by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in cultures of central nervous tissue. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 34:531. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Patton SE, et al. 1985. Changes in brain and spinal cord protein phosphorylation after a single oral administration of tri-o-cresyl phosphate to hens. J Neurochem 45:1567. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Dollahite JW, Pierce KR. 1969. Neurologic disturbances due to triaryl phosphate toxicity. Am J Vet Res 30:1461. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Beck BE, Wood CD, Whenham GR. 1977. Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle. Vet Pathol 14:128. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Prantner MM, Sosalla MJ. 1993. Delayed organophosphate neurotoxicosis in four heifers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:1453. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Coppock RW, Mostrom MS, Khan AA, et al. 1995. A review of nonpesticide phosphate ester-induced neurotoxicity in cattle. Vet Hum Toxicol 37:576. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Perdrizet JA, Cummings JF, de Lahunta A. 1985. Presumptive organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity in a paralyzed bull. Cornell Vet 75:401. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH. 1977. Ultrastructural studies of the dying back process. IV. Differential vulnerability of PNS and CNS fibers in experimental central-peripheral distal axonopathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neuropathol 36:300.
  10. Rose RJ, Hartley WJ, Baker W. 1981. Laryngeal paralysis in Arabian foals associated with oral haloxon administration. Equine Vet J 13:171. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Duncan ID, Brook D. 1985. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in the horse. Equine Vet J 17:228. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Richardson RJ. 1983. Neurotoxic esterase: research trends and prospects. Neurotoxicology 4:157. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Johnson MK. 1990. Organophosphates and delayed neuropathy: is NTE alive and well? Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 102:385. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Weiner ML, Jortner BS. 1999. Organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity of triaryl phosphates. Neurotoxicology 20:653. PUBMED Abstract

Motor Unit and Cauda Equina Diseases


  1. Rossetto O, Pirazzini M, Bolognese P, et al. 2011. An update on the mechanism of action of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. Acta Chim Slov 58:702. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Schiavo G, Benfenati F, Poulain B, et al. 1992. Tetanus and botulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin. Nature 359:832. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Brooks CE, Clarke HJ, Graham DA, et al. 2011. Diagnosis of botulism types C and D in cattle by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Vet Rec 168:455. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Nakamura K, Kohda T, Umeda K, et al. 2010. Characterization of the D/C mosaic neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum associated with bovine botulism in Japan. Vet Microbiol 140:147. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Whitlock RH, McAdams S. 2006. Equine botulism. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:37.
  6. Johnson AL, McAdams SC, Whitlock RH. 2010. Type A botulism in horses in the United States: a review of the past ten years (1998-2008). J Vet Diagn Invest 22:165. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Anonymous. 2011. Cases of botulism in cattle and sheep associated with poultry litter. Vet Rec 168:556. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Kennedy S, Ball H. 2011. Botulism in cattle associated with poultry litter. Vet Rec 168:638. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Otter A, Livesey C, Hogg R, et al. 2006. Risk of botulism in cattle and sheep arising from contact with broiler litter. Vet Rec 159:186. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Lobato FCF, Salvarani FM, Silva ROS, et al. 2008. An outbreak of botulism in ruminants being fed with poultry litter. Cienc Rural 38:1176.
  11. Gerber V, Straub R, Frey J. 2006. Equine botulism and acute pasture myodystrophy: new soil-borne emerging diseases in Switzerland? Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 148:553. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Braun U. 2006. Botulism in cattle. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 148:331. PUBMED Abstract
  13. da Costa GM, Salvador SC, Pereira MN. 2008. Botulism in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cienc Rural 38:2068.
  14. Myllykoski J, Lindstrom M, Keto-Timonen R, et al. 2009. Type C bovine botulism outbreak due to carcass contaminated non-acidified silage. Epidemiol Infect 137:284. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Ostrowski SR, Kubiski SV, Palmero J, et al. 2012. An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:601. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Wichtel JJ, Whitlock RH. 1991. Botulism associated with feeding alfalfa hay to horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:471. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Whitlock RH. 2009. Botulism (shaker foals, forage poisoning), pp 1096-1101. In Smith BP (ed), Large animal internal medicine, ed 4. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  18. Kelch WJ, Kerr LA, Pringle JK, et al. 2000. Fatal Clostridium botulinum toxicosis in eleven Holstein cattle fed round bale barley haylage. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:453. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Wilson RB, Boley MT, Corwin B. 1995. Presumptive botulism in cattle associated with plastic-packaged hay. J Vet Diagn Invest 7:167. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Yeruham I, Elad D, Avidar Y, et al. 2003. Outbreak of botulism type B in a dairy cattle herd: clinical and epidemiological aspects. Vet Rec 153:270. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Galey FD, Terra R, Walker R, et al. 2000. Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:204. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Kinde H, Bettey RL, Ardans A, et al. 1991. Clostridium-botulinum type-C intoxication associated with consumption of processed alfalfa hay cubes in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:742. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Trueman KF, Bock RE, Thomas RJ, et al. 1992. Suspected botulism in three intensively managed Australian cattle herds. Vet Rec 130:398. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Payne JH, Hogg RA, Otter A, et al. 2011. Emergence of suspected type D botulism in ruminants in England and Wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter. Vet Rec 168:640. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Holzhauer M, Roest HIJ, de Jong MG, et al. 2009. Botulism in dairy cattle in 2008: symptoms, diagnosis, pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 134:564. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Wilkins PA, Palmer JE. 2003. Botulism in foals less than 6 months of age: 30 cases (1989-2002). J Vet Intern Med 17:702. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Swerczek TW. 1980. Experimentally induced toxicoinfectious botulism in horses and foals. Am J Vet Res 41:348. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Swerczek TW. 1980. Toxicoinfectious botulism in foals and adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:217. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Capek P, Dickerson TJ. 2010. Sensing the deadliest toxin: technologies for botulinum neurotoxin detection. Toxins 2:24. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Woudstra C, Skarin H, Anniballi F, et al. 2012. Neurotoxin gene profiling of Clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3120. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Johnson AL, Sweeney RW, McAdams SC, et al. 2012. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of the neurotoxin gene of Clostridium botulinum type B in equine and bovine samples. Vet J 194:118. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Jubb TF, Ellis TM, Gregory AR. 1993. Diagnosis of botulism in cattle using ELISA to detect antibody to botulinum toxins. Aust Vet J 70:226. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Mawhinney I, Palmer D, Gessler F, et al. 2012. Investigation of serology for diagnosis of outbreaks of botulism in cattle. Vet J 192:382. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Divers TJ, Bartholomew RC, Messick JB, et al. 1986. Clostridium botulinum type B toxicosis in a herd of cattle and a group of mules. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:382. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Aleman M, Williams DC, Jorge NE, et al. 2011. Repetitive stimulation of the common peroneal nerve as a diagnostic aid for botulism in foals. J Vet Intern Med 25:365. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Whitlock RH, Buckley C. 1997. Botulism. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:107. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Wilkins PA, Palmer JE. 2003. Mechanical ventilation in foals with botulism: 9 cases (1989-2002). J Vet Intern Med 17:708. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Fox CK, Keet CA, Strober JB. 2005. Recent advances in infant botulism. Pediatr Neurol 32:149. PUBMED Abstract

Equine Motor Neuron Disease

  1. Cummings JF, Delahunta A, George C, et al. 1990. Equine motor-neuron disease—A preliminary report. Cornell Vet 80:357. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Divers TJ, Mohammed HO, Hintz HF, et al. 2006. Equine motor neuron disease: a review of clinical and experimental studies. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:24.
  3. Divers TJ, Mohammed HO, Cummings JF. 1997. Equine motor neuron disease. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13:97. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Divers TJ, de Lahunta A, Hintz HF, et al. 2001. Equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet Educ 13:63.
  5. MacKay RJ. 2008. Neurodegenerative disorders, pp 235-256. In Furr M, Reed S (eds), Equine neurology, ed 1. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  6. DeVilbiss BA, Mohammed HO, Divers TJ. 2009. Perception of equine practitioners regarding the occurrence of selected equine neurologic diseases in the Northeast over a 10-year period. J Equine Vet Sci 29:237.
  7. McGorum BC, Mayhew IG, Amory H, et al. 2006. Horses on pasture may be affected by equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet J 38:47. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Mohammed HO, Cummings JF, Divers TJ, et al. 1993. Risk-factors associated with equine motor-neuron disease—A possible model for human MND. Neurology 43:966. PUBMED Abstract
  9. dela Rua Domenech R, Mohammed HO, Cummings JF, et al. 1997. Intrinsic, management, and nutritional factors associated with equine motor neuron disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:1261. PUBMED Abstract
  10. deLa Rua Domenech R, Mohammed HO, Cummings JF, et al. 1997. Association between plasma vitamin E concentration and the risk of equine motor neuron disease. Vet J 154:203. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Syrja P, Cizinauskas S, Sankari SM, et al. 2006. Equine motor neuron disease (EMND) in a horse without vitamin E deficiency: a sequela of iron excess? Equine Vet Educ 18:122.
  12. Divers TJ, Mohammed HO, Cummings JF, et al. 1994. Equine motor-neuron disease—Findings in 28 horses and proposal of a pathophysiological mechanism for the disease. Equine Vet J 26:409. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Palencia P, Quiroz-Rothe E, Rivero JLL. 2005. New insights into the skeletal muscle phenotype of equine motor neuron disease: a quantitative approach. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 109:272. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Riis RC, Jackson C, Rebhun W, et al. 1999. Ocular manifestations of equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet J 31:99. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Divers TJ, Cummings JE, de Lahunta A, et al. 2006. Evaluation of the risk of motor neuron disease in horses fed a diet low in vitamin E and high in copper and iron. Am J Vet Res 67:120. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Mohammed HO, Divers TJ, Summers BA, et al. 2007. Vitamin E deficiency and risk of equine motor neuron disease. Acta Vet Scand 49:17. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Wijnberg ID. 2006. Equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet Educ 18:126.
  18. Kyles KWJ, McGorum BC, Fintl C, et al. 2001. Electromyography under caudal epidural anaesthesia as an aid to the diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease. Vet Rec 148:536. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Blythe LL, Craig AM, Lassen ED, et al. 1991. Serially determined plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and results of the oral vitamin E absorption test in clinically normal horses and in horses with degenerative myeloencephalopathy. Am J Vet Res 52:908. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Wijnberg ID, Back W, De Jong M, et al. 2004. The role of electromyography in clinical diagnosis of neuromuscular locomotor problems in the horse. Equine Vet J 36:718. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Benders NA, Dyer J, Wijnberg ID, et al. 2005. Evaluation of glucose tolerance and intestinal luminal membrane glucose transporter function in horses with equine motor neuron disease. Am J Vet Res 66:93. PUBMED Abstract
  22. van der Kolk JH, Rijnen K, Rey F, et al. 2005. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in three horses with lower motor neuron degeneration. Am J Vet Res 66:271. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Jackson CA, DeLahunta A, Cummings JF, et al. 1996. Spinal accessory nerve biopsy as an ante mortem diagnostic test for equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet J 28:215.
  24. Valentine BA, Delahunta A, George C, et al. 1994. Acquired equine motor neuron disease. Vet Pathol 31:130. PUBMED Abstract

Acquired Equine Polyneuropathy (Scandinavian Knuckling Syndrome)

  1. Grondahl G, Hanche-Olsen S, Brojer J, et al. 2012. Acquired equine polyneuropathy in Norway and Sweden: a clinical and epidemiological study. Equine Vet J 44:36. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Hahn CN, Matiasek K, Syrja P, et al. 2008. Polyneuropathy of Finnish horses characterised by inflammatory demyelination and intracisternal Schwann cell inclusions. Equine Vet J 40:231. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Furuoka H, Okamoto R, Kitayama S, et al. 1998. Idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in the horse with knuckling: muscle and nerve lesions in additional cases. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 96:431. PUBMED Abstract

Polyneuritis Equi (Neuritis of Cauda Equina)

  1. Aleman M, Katzman SA, Vaughan B, et al. 2009. Antemortem diagnosis of polyneuritis equi. J Vet Intern Med 23:665. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Bertelsen MF, Enemark JMD, Olsen SN. 2006. Polyneuritis equi: review and cases. Dansk Veterinartidsskrift 89:19.
  3. Hahn CN. 2006. Miscellaneous disorders of the equine nervous system: Horner's syndrome and polyneuritis equi. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5:43.
  4. Vatistas NJ, Mayhew IG, Whitwell KE, et al. 1991. Polyneuritis equi: a clinical review incorporating a case report of a horse displaying unconventional signs. Prog Vet Neurol 2:67.
  5. Scarratt WK, Jortner BS. 1985. Neuritis of the cauda equina in a yearling filly. Compend Contin Educ Vet 7:S197.
  6. Fankhauser R, Gerber H, Cravero GC, et al. 1975. Clinical aspects and pathology of neuritis cauda equina (NCE) in the horse. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 117:675. PUBMED Abstract
  7. van Galen G, Cassart D, Sandersen C, et al. 2008. The composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in three cases of polyneuritis equi. Equine Vet J 40:185. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Hahn CN. 2008. Polyneuritis equi: The role of T-lymphocytes and importance of differential clinical signs. Equine Vet J 40:100. PUBMED Abstract
  9. White PL, Genetzky RM, Pohlenz JFL, et al. 1984. Neuritis of the cauda equina in a horse. Compend Contin Educ Vet 6:S217.
  10. Edington N, Wright JA, Patel JR, et al. 1984. Equine adenovirus-1 isolated from cauda equina neuritis. Res Vet Sci 37:252. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Held JP, Vanhooser S, Prater P, et al. 1989. Impotence in a stallion with neuritis cauda equina—a case-report. J Equine Vet Sci 9:67.
  12. Rousseaux CG, Futcher KG, Clark EG, et al. 1984. Cauda equina-neuritis—a chronic idiopathic polyneuritis in 2 horses. Can Vet J 25:214. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Cummings JF, Lahunta AD, Timoney JF. 1979. Neuritis of the cauda equina, a chronic idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis in the horse. Acta Neuropathologica 46:17. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Beech J. 1977. Neuritis of the cauda equina. AAEP Proc 22:75-76.
  15. Fordyce PS, Edington N, Bridges GC, et al. 1987. Use of an ELISA in the differential-diagnosis of cauda equine neuritis and other equine neuropathies. Equine Vet J 19:55. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Kadlubowski M, Ingram PL. 1981. Circulating antibodies to the neuritogenic myelin protein, P-2, in neuritis of the cauda equina of the horse. Nature 293:299. PUBMED Abstract

Sorghum Toxicity

  1. McKenzie RA, McMicking LI. 1977. Ataxia and urinary-incontinence in cattle grazing sorghum. Aust Vet J 53:496. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Vankampen KR. 1970. Sudan grass and sorghum poisoning of horses—a possible lathyrogenic disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 156:629. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Adams LG, Dollahit JW, Romane WM, et al. 1969. Cystitis and ataxia associated with sorghum ingestion by horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:518. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Knight PR. 1968. Equine cystitis and ataxia associated with grazing of pastures dominated by Sorghum species. Aust Vet J 44:257. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Soto-Blanco B, Maiorka PC, Gorniak SL. 2002. Neuropathologic study of long term cyanide administration to goats. Food Chem Toxicol 40:1693. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Everist SE. 1981. Poisonous plants of Australia, ed 3. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
  7. Juffo GD, Pavarini SP, Wouters F, et al. 2012. Spontaneous poisoning by Sorghum sudanense in dairy cattle in Rio Grande do Sul. Pesqui Vet Bras 32:217.
  8. Bradley GA, Metcalf HC, Reggiardo C, et al. 1995. Neuroaxonal degeneration in sheep grazing sorghum pastures. J Vet Diagn Invest 7:229. PUBMED Abstract
  9. da Nobrega JE, Riet-Correa F, Medeiros RMT, et al. 2006. Poisoning by Sorghum halepense (poaceae) in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid. Pesqui Vet Bras 26:201.
  10. Bapat JA, Abhyankar YN. 1984. Cyanide poisoning in cattle due to feeding of sorghum. Indian J Anim Sci 54:577.


  1. Pemberton DH, Caple IW. 1980. Australian stringhalt in horses. Vet Ann 22:167.
  2. Huntington PJ, Jeffcott LB, Friend SC, et al. 1989. Australian stringhalt—epidemiological, clinical and neurological investigations. Equine Vet J 21:266. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Araujo JA, Curcio B, Alda J, et al. 2008. Stringhalt in Brazilian horses caused by Hypochaeris radicata. Toxicon 52:526. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Cahill JI, Goulden BE, Pearce HG. 1985. A review and some observations on stringhalt. N Z Vet J 33:101. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Torre F. 2005. Clinical diagnosis and results of surgical treatment of 13 cases of acquired bilateral stringhalt (1991-2003). Equine Vet J 37:181. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Dixon RT, Stewart GA. 1969. Clinical and pharmacological observations in a case of equine stringhalt. Aust Vet J 45:127. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Schultze C, Wuttke W, Otto B, et al. 2009. Australian stringhalt in Germany. Pferdeheilkunde 25:115.
  8. Kendall WT. 1884. The diseases of Australian horses. Cameron, Laing and Co., Melbourne, Australia, pp 183.
  9. Barry WC. 1956. The incidence of Australian stringhalt in horses. N Z Vet J 4:26.
  10. Gardner SY, Cook AG, Jortner BS, et al. 2005. Stringhalt associated with a pasture infested with Hypochoeris radicata. Equine Vet Educ 17:118.
  11. Domange C, Casteignau A, Collignon G, et al. 2010. Longitudinal study of Australian stringhalt cases in France. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 94:712. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Takahashi T, Kitamura M, Endo Y, et al. 2002. An outbreak of stringhalt resembling Australian stringhalt in Japan. J Equine Sci 13:93.
  13. Slocombe RF, Huntington PJ, Friend SC, et al. 1992. Pathological aspects of Australian stringhalt. Equine Vet J 24:174. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Cahill JI, Goulden BE. 1992. Stringhalt—current thoughts on aetiology and pathogenesis. Equine Vet J 24:174. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Crabill MR, Honnas CM, Taylor DS, et al. 1994. Stringhalt secondary to trauma to the dorsoproximal region of the metatarsus in horses: 10 cases (1986-1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:867. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Araya O, Krause A, Solis de Ovando M. 1998. Outbreaks of stringhalt in southern Chile. Vet Rec 142:462. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Cahill JI, Goulden BE, Jolly RD. 1986. Stringhalt in horses: a distal axonopathy. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 12:459. PUBMED Abstract

Tick Paralysis

  1. Tee SY, Feary DJ. 2012. Suspected tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus) in a miniature horse. Aust Vet J 90:181. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Diaz JH. 2010. A comparative meta-analysis of tick paralysis in North America and Australia: epidemiology, clinical and electrodiagnostic manifestations and outcomes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:244.
  3. Clark HC, Childress RD, Coleman NC. 1980. Tick paralysis in a calf. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 75:1030.
  4. Doube BM, Kemp DH, Bird PE. 1977. Paralysis of calves by tick, Ixodes holocyclus. Aust Vet J 53:39. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Doube BM. 1975. Cattle and paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus. Aust Vet J 51:511. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Sloan CA. 1968. Mortality in sheep due to Ixodes species. Aust Vet J 44:527. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Barrington GM, Parish SM. 1995. Tick paralysis in 2 llamas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:476. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Schofield LN, Saunders JR. 1992. An incidental case of tick paralysis in a Holstein calf exposed to Dermacentor andersoni. Can Vet J 33:190. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Fourie LJ, Kok DJ. 1996. Seasonal dynamics of the Karoo paralysis tick (Ixodes rubicundus): a comparative study on Merino and Dorper sheep. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 63:273. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Petney TN, Fourie LJ. 1990. The dispersion of the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus, within a naturally infested population of sheep in South Africa. Vet Parasitol 34:345. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Schniewind A, Gothe R, Neu H. 1983. On the patho-physiology of tick paralysis of sheep caused by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi Neumann, 1897. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 96:81. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Chrisman CL. 1975. Differentiation of tick paralysis and acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis in the dog using electromyography. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 11:455.
  13. Stone BF, Neish AL, Morrison JJ, et al. 1986. Toxoid stimulation in dogs of high titers of neutralizing antibodies against holocyclotoxin, the paralyzing toxin of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus. Aust Vet J 63:125. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Nagy DW. 2004. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis and other parasitic diseases of the ruminant nervous system. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 20:393. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Fearnley A. 2002. Possible reasons for variation in Ixodes holocyclus toxicity. Aust Vet Pract 32:76.
  16. Jonsson NN, Rozmanec M. 1997. Tick paralysis and hepatic lipidosis in a llama. Aust Vet J 75:250. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Atwell RB, Campbell FE. 2001. Reactions to tick antitoxin serum and the role of atropine in treatment of dogs and cats with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus: a pilot survey. Aust Vet J 79:394. PUBMED Abstract

Equine Grass Sickness

  1. Wylie CE, Proudman CJ. 2009. Equine grass sickness: epidemiology, diagnosis, and global distribution. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 25:381. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Uzal FA, Robles CA. 1993. Mal seco, a grass sickness-like syndrome of horses in Argentina. Vet Res Commun 17:449. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Hedderson EJ, Newton JR. 2004. Prospects for vaccination against equine grass sickness. Equine Vet J 36:186. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Wright A, Beard L, Bawa B, et al. 2010. Dysautonomia in a six-year-old mule in the United States. Equine Vet J 42:170. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Protopapas KF, Spanoudes KAM, Diakakis NE, et al. 2012. Equine grass sickness in Cyprus: a case report. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 36:85.
  6. Gilmour JS, Jolly GM. 1974. Some aspects of the epidemiology of equine grass sickness. Vet Rec 95:77. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Doxey DL, Gilmour JS, Milne EM. 1991. The relationship between meteorological features and equine grass sickness (dysautonomia). Equine Vet J 23:370. PUBMED Abstract
  8. McCarthy HE, Proudman CJ, French NP. 2001. Epidemiology of equine grass sickness: a literature review (1909-1999). Vet Rec 149:293. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Wood JL, Milne EM, Doxey DL. 1998. A case-control study of grass sickness (equine dysautonomia) in the United Kingdom. Vet J 156:7. PUBMED Abstract
  10. French NP, McCarthy HE, Diggle PJ, et al. 2005. Clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the United Kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time K-function. Epidemiol Infect 133:343. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Newton JR, Wylie CE, Proudman CJ, et al. 2010. Equine grass sickness: are we any nearer to answers on cause and prevention after a century of research? Equine Vet J 42:477. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Newton JR, Hedderson EJ, Adams VJ, et al. 2004. An epidemiological study of risk factors associated with the recurrence of equine grass sickness (dysautonomia) on previously affected premises. Equine Vet J 36:105. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Wylie CE, Proudman CJ, McGorum BC, et al. 2011. A nationwide surveillance scheme for equine grass sickness in Great Britain: results for the period 2000-2009. Equine Vet J 43:571. PUBMED Abstract
  14. McGorum BC, Pirie RS, Fry SC. 2012. Quantification of cyanogenic glycosides in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) from horse pastures in relation to equine grass sickness. Grass Forage Sci 67:274.
  15. Michl J, Modarai M, Edwards S, et al. 2011. Metabolomic analysis of Ranunculus spp. as potential agents involved in the etiology of equine grass sickness. J Agric Food Chem 59:10388. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Gilmour JS, Mould DL. 1977. Experimental studies of neurotoxic activity in blood fractions from acute cases of grass sickness. Res Vet Sci 22:1. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Gilmour JS. 1973. Experimental reproduction of the neurological lesions associated with grass sickness. Vet Rec 92:565. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Hunter LC, Miller JK, Poxton IR. 1999. The association of Clostridium botulinum type C with equine grass sickness: a toxicoinfection? Equine Vet J 31:492. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Hunter LC, Poxton IR. 2001. Systemic antibodies to Clostridium botulinum type C: do they protect horses from grass sickness (dysautonomia)? Equine Vet J 33:547. PUBMED Abstract
  20. McCarthy HE, French NP, Edwards GB, et al. 2004. Equine grass sickness is associated with low antibody levels to Clostridium botulinum: a matched case-control study. Equine Vet J 36:123. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Cottrell DF, McGorum BC, Pearson GT. 1999. The neurology and enterology of equine grass sickness: a review of basic mechanisms. Neurogastroenterol Motil 11:79. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Hahn CN, Mayhew IG, de Lahunta A. 2001. Central neuropathology of equine grass sickness. Acta Neuropathol 102:153. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Johnson P, Dawson AM, Mould DL. 1983. Serum protein changes in grass sickness. Res Vet Sci 35:165. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Doxey DL, Milne EM, Gilmour JS, et al. 1991. Clinical and biochemical feature of grass sickness (equine dysautonomia). Equine Vet J 23:360.
  25. Hahn CN, Mayhew IG. 2000. Phenylephrine eyedrops as a diagnostic test in equine grass sickness. Vet Rec 147:603. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Doxey DL, Pogson DM, Milne EM, et al. 1992. Clinical equine dysautonomia and autonomic neuron damage. Res Vet Sci 53:106. PUBMED Abstract

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

  1. Hermann RC Jr. 2003. Mechanical nerve injuries, p 1953. In Noseworthy J (ed), Neurological therapeutics: principles and practice. Martin Dunitz, London.
  2. Tucker H. 1976. Human laryngeal reinnervation. Laryngoscope 86:769. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Vaughan LC. 1964. Peripheral nerve injuries: an experimental study in cattle. Vet Rec 76:1293.
  4. Schneider RK, Bramlage LR. 1990. Suprascapular nerve injury in horses. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 12:1783.
  5. Ruegsegger F, Steffen F, Nuss KA. 2012. Partial brachial plexus paresis in three calves. Vet Rec 171:401. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Mayhew IG. 1993. Clinical application of needle electromyography to evaluate lesions involving nerves of the brachial plexus. Equine Vet Educ 5:103.
  7. Carli A. 2006. Case report: bilateral radial nerve paralysis in a newborn foal. Ippologia 17:17.
  8. Kaneps AJ, Blythe LL. 1986. Diagnosis and treatment of brachial-plexus trauma resulting from dystocia in a calf. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 8:S4.
  9. Lopez MJ, Nordberg C, Trostle S. 1997. Fracture of the 7th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebrae presenting as radial nerve paralysis in a horse. Can Vet J 38:112. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Rooney J. 1963. Radial paralysis in the horse. Cornell Vet 53:328. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Trim CM, Mason J. 1973. Post-anaesthetic forelimb lameness in horses. Equine Vet J 5:71. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Duffell SJ, Wells GA, Winkler CE. 1986. “Kangaroo gait” in ewes: a peripheral neuropathy. Vet Rec 118:296. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Clements AC, Mellor DJ, Innocent GT, et al. 2003. A descriptive study of “kangaroo gait” in sheep in northern Britain. Prev Vet Med 61:147. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Clements AC, Mellor DJ, Johnston PE, et al. 2002. Clinical and pathological investigations of “kangaroo gait” in sheep. Vet Rec 150:485. PUBMED Abstract
  15. O'Toole D, Wells GA, Green RB, et al. 1989. Radial and tibial nerve pathology of two lactating ewes with “kangaroo gait.” J Comp Pathol 100:245. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Bourke C. 2009. Are ovine fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) staggers and kangaroo gait of lactating ewes two clinically and pathologically similar nervous disorders? Aust Vet J 87:99. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Healy AM. 1997. Dystocia and femoral nerve paralysis in calves. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 19:1299.
  18. Dyson S, Taylor P, Whitwell K. 1988. Femoral nerve paralysis after general anaesthesia. Equine Vet J 20:376. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Cox VS, Breazile JE, Hoover TR. 1975. Surgical and anatomic study of calving paralysis. Am J Vet Res 36:427. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Goerigk D, Bottcher D, Locher L, et al. 2010. Unilateral paralysis of the sciatic nerve in calves—a case report. Praktische Tierarzt 91:686.
  21. Cox VS, Martin CE. 1975. Peroneal nerve paralysis in a heifer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:142. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Keown GH. 1956. Peroneal nerve damage. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 20:445. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Sloss V. 1974. Clinical-study of dystocia in cattle. 2. Complications. Aust Vet J 50:294. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Cox VS, Breazile JE. 1973. Experimental bovine obturator paralysis. Vet Rec 93:109. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Bjorsell KA, Holtenius P, Jacobsson SO. 1969. Studies on parturient paresis with special reference to the downer cow syndrome. Acta Vet Scand 10:36. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Jonsson G, Pehrson B. 1969. Studies on the downer syndrome in dairy cows. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 16:757. PUBMED Abstract

Down Cows (Alert Downers)

  1. Van Metre DC, Callan RJ. 2003. Downer cows: diagnosis and assessment. Proc ACVIM Forum 21:318.
  2. Curtis RA, Cote JF, Willoughby RA. 1970. The downer cow syndrome: a complication, not a disease. Mod Vet Pract 51:25.
  3. Bjorsell KA, Holtenius P, Jacobsson SO. 1969. Studies on parturient paresis with special reference to the downer cow syndrome. Acta Vet Scand 10:36. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Waage S. 1980. Milk fever and the downer cow syndrome: prognostic factors at first treatment. Reports and Summaries of the XI International Congress on Diseases of Cattle. 2:1250.
  5. Jonsson G, Pehrson B. 1969. Studies on the downer syndrome in dairy cows. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 16:757. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Hallgren W. 1955. Studies on parturient paresis in dairy cows. Nord Vet Med 7:433.
  7. Cox VS, Marsh WE, Steuernagel GR, et al. 1986. Downer cow occurrence in Minnesota dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 4:249.
  8. Cox VS, McGrath CJ, Jorgensen SE. The role of pressure damage in pathogenesis of the downer cow syndrome. Am J Vet Res 1982;43:26. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Gelberman RH, Szabo RM, Williamson RV, et al. 1983. Tissue pressure threshold for peripheral nerve viability. Clin Orthop 178:285. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Prasad B, Rathor SS, Wadhwa DR. 1988. A note on serum creatine phosphokinase and transaminases in downer cows. Indian J Vet Med 8:159.
  11. Shpigel NY, Avidar Y, Bogin E. 2003. Value of measurements of the serum activities of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase for predicting whether recumbent dairy cows will recover. Vet Rec 152:773. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Rasmussen AJ. 1982. Fysiurgisk behandling af lammelser hos Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 65:1018.
  13. Angelos JA, Smith BP, George LW, et al. 1997. Flotation therapy for downer cows. Proc ACVIM Forum 15:683.

References for Table 35-6

  1. Read WK, Bridges CH. 1968. Neuronal lipodystrophy: occurrence in an inbred strain of cattle. Vet Pathol 6:235. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Harper PA, Walker KH, Healy PJ, et al. 1988. Neurovisceral ceroid lipofuscinosis in blind Devon cattle. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 75:632. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Edwards JF, Storts RW, Joyce JR, et al. 1994. Juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Rambouillet sheep. Vet Pathol 31:48. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Fiske RA, Storts RW. 1988. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Nubian goats. Vet Pathol 25:171. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Lingaas F, Mitchison HM, Mole SE, et al. 1999. Animal models of NCL. In Goebel HH, Mole SE, Lake BD (eds), The neuronal ceroid lipfuscinoses (Batten disease). IOS, Amsterdam 152.
  6. Url A, Bauder B, Thalhammer J, et al. 2001. Equine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Acta Neuropathol 101:410. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Jolly RD, Janmaat DM, West DM. 1980. Ovine ceroid lipofuscinosis: a model of Batten's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 6:195. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Jolly RD. 1995. Comparative biology of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL): an overview. Am J Med Genet 57:307. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Martinus RD, Harper PA, Jolly RD, et al. 1991. Bovine ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease): the major component stored is the DCCD-reactive proteolipid, subunit c, of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Vet Res Commun 15:85. PUBMED Abstract
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