Chapter 22 Clinical Chemistry Tests

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  16. Carlson GP, Bruss ML. 2008. Fluid-electrolyte and acid-base balance. In Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds), Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, ed 6. Academic Press Elsevier, New York.
  17. DiBartola SP. 2012. Introduction to acid-base disorders. In DiBartola SP (ed), Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders in small animal practice, ed 4. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, MO.
  18. deMorais HAS, Constable PD. 2012. Strong ion approach to acid base disorder. In DiBartola SP, Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders in small animal practice, ed 4. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, MO.
  19. Stick JA, Robinson NE, Krehbiel JD. 1981. Acid-base and electrolyte alterations associated with salivary loss in the pony. Am J Vet Res 42:733. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Rumbaugh GE, Carlson GP, Harrold DR. 1981. Clinicopathologic effects of rapid infusion of 5% sodium bicarbonate in 5% dextrose in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:267. PUBMED Abstract
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  28. Stämpfli HR, Carlson GP. 2001. How to use routine serum biochemical profile to understand and interpret acid-base disorders in the horse. AAEP proceedings 47:257.
  29. Stämpfli HR, Oliver O, Pringle JK. 2012. Clinical evaluation of an oral electrolyte solution formulated based on strong ion difference (SID) and using propionate as the organic anion in the treatment of neonatal diarrheic calves with strong ion acidosis. Open J Vet Med 2:34.
  30. Stämpfli HR, Misiaszek S, Lumsden JH, et al. 1999. Weak acid concentration Atot and dissociation constant Ka of plasma proteins in racehorses. Equine Vet J Suppl 30:438. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Stämpfli HR, Constable PD. 2003. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in human plasma. J Appl Physiol 95:620.
  32. Constable PD, Stämpfli HR. 2005. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in canine plasma. J Vet Intern Med 19:507. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Constable PD. 1997. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: application to horse plasma. J Appl Physiol 83:297. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Muir WW. 1998. Comparison of anion gap and strong ion gap as predictors of unmeasured strong ion concentration in plasma and serum from horses. Am J Vet Res 59:881. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Constable PD, Stämpfli HR, Navetat H, et al. 2005. Use of a quantitative strong ion approach to determine the mechanism for acid-base abnormalities in sick calves with or without diarrhea. J Vet Intern Med 19:581. PUBMED Abstract
  36. McGorum BC, Murphy D, Love S, et al. 1999. Clinicopathological features of equine primary hepatic disease: a review of 50 cases. Vet Rec 145:134. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Kalaitzakis E, Panousis N, Roubies N. 2010. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver. Can Vet J 51:615. PUBMED Abstract
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  40. Lewis LD, Phillips RW, Elliott CD. 1975. Changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations and enzyme activities in the neonatal calf with diarrhea. Am J Vet Res 36:413. PUBMED Abstract
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  42. Roeder BL, Schaalje B, Kelly EJ, et al. 1996. A rapid method for determination of blood glucose concentration in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:707. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Hassel DM, Hill AE, Rorabeck RA. 2009. Association between hyperglycemia and survival in 228 horses with acute gastrointestinal disease. J Vet Intern Med 23:1261. PUBMED Abstract
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  45. Constable PD, Gelfert CC, Fürll M, et al. 2009. Application of strong ion difference theory to urine and the relationship between urine pH and net acid excretion in cattle. Am J Vet Res 70:915. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Lefebvre HP, Dossin O, Trumel C, et al. 2008. Fractional excretion tests: a critical review of methods and applications in domestic animals. Vet Clin Pathol 37:4. PUBMED Abstract

Useful Websites for Clinical Chemistry

  1. Acid-base program, Stämpfli. [WWW page]., accessed Nov 18, 2013.
  2. Online clinical pathology textbook. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Health Diagnostic Center. [WWW page]., accessed Nov 18, 2013.
  3. Stewart PA. 1981. P.A. Stewart's original book online: How to understand acid-base: a quantitative acid-base primer for biology and medicine. Elsevier, New York. [WWW page]., accessed Nov 18, 2013.