Chapter 3 Pain

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  23. Ley SJ, Waterman AE, Livingston A. 1996. Measurement of mechanical thresholds. Plasma cortisol and catecholamines in control and lame cattle: a preliminary study. Res Vet Sci 61:172. PUBMED Abstract
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  26. Flower FC, Sedlbauer M, Carter E, et al. 2008. Analgesics improve the gait of lame dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 91:3010. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Smith GW, Davis JL, Tell LA, et al. 2008. Extralabel use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:697. PUBMED Abstract
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  30. Kara H, Sahin N, Ulusan V, et al. 2002. Magnesium infusion reduces perioperative pain. Eur J Anaesthesiol 19:52. PUBMED Abstract
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  32. USP Veterinary Pharmaceutical Information Monographs—Anti-inflammatories. 2004. Phenylbutazone. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:92. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Lees P, Ayliffe T, Maitho TE, et al. 1988. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of phenylbutazone in cattle following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration. Res Vet Sci 44:57. PUBMED Abstract
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  36. USP Veterinary Pharmaceutical Information Monographs—Anti-inflammatories. 2004. Aspirin. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:4. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Kotschwar JL, Coetzee JF, Anderson DE, et al. 2009. Analgesic efficacy of sodium salicylate in an amphotericin B induced bovine synovitis-arthritis model. J Dairy Sci J 92:3731. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Gingerich DA, Baggot JD, Yeary RA. 1975. Pharmacokinetics and dosage of aspirin in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:945. PUBMED Abstract
  39. USP Veterinary Pharmaceutical Information Monographs—Anti-inflammatories. 2004. Carprofen. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:15. PUBMED Abstract
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  44. Coetzee JF, KuKanich B, Mosher R, et al. 2009. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral meloxicam in ruminant calves. Vet Ther 10:E1. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Abrahamsen EJ. 2009. Chemical restraint in ruminants, pp 546-549. In Anderson DE, Rings DM (eds), Current veterinary therapy food animal practice, ed 5. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO.
  46. Coetzee JF, Gehring R, Anderson DE, et al. 2010. Effect of sub-anaesthetic xylazine and ketamine (“ketamine stun”) administered to calves prior to castration. Vet Anaesth Analg 37:566. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Court MH, Dodman NH, Levine HD, et al. 1992. Pharmacokinetics and milk residues of butorphanol in dairy cows after single intravenous administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 15:28. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Baldridge SL, Coetzee JF, Dritz SS, et al. 2010. Pharmacokinetics and physiologic effects of xylazine-ketamine-butorphanol administered intramuscularly alone or in combination with orally administered sodium salicylate on biomarkers of pain in Holstein calves following concurrent castration and dehorning. Am J Vet Res 72:1305.
  49. Caron JP, LeBlanc PH. 1989. Caudal epidural analgesia in cattle using xylazine. Can J Vet Res 53:486. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Caulkett NA, MacDonald DG, Janzen ED, et al. 1993. Xylazine hydrochloride epidural analgesia—a method of providing sedation and analgesia to facilitate castration of mature bulls. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 15:1155.
  51. Grubb TL, Riebold TW, Crisman RO. 2002. Comparison of lidocaine, xylazine, and lidocaine–xylazine for caudal epidural analgesia in cattle. Vet Anaesth Analg 29:64.
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  53. Gehring R, Coetzee JF, Tarus-Sang J. 2009. Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and its metabolite norketamine administered at a sub-anesthetic dose together with xylazine to calves prior to castration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 32:124. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Coetzee JF, Mosher RA, Kohake LE. 2011. Pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin alone or co-administered with meloxicam in ruminant beef calves. Vet J 190:98. PUBMED Abstract

Further Reading

  1. Coetzee J. 2013. Pain management. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 29:1. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Kent JE, Molony V. Guidelines for the recognition & assessment of animal pain. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. [WWW page]., accessed June 3, 2013.
  3. Manteca X, Millman ST. 2011. Special issue: pain in farm animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 135:177.